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Overview

Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia Acts

Australia Acts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., Encounters with the Australian Constitution (1987, popular edn 1988) ch 1 Christopher Gilbert , ‘ Section 15 of the Australia Acts: Constitutional Change by the Back Door? ’ (1989) 5 QUTLJ 55 John Goldring , ‘The Australia Act 1986 and the Formal Independence of Australia’ [1986] Public Law 192 H P Lee , ‘ The Australia Act 1986—Some Legal Conundrums ’ (1988) 14 Monash University Law Review 298 Bernard O'Brien , ‘The Australia Acts’ in M P Ellinghaus , A J Bradbrook and A J Duggan (eds), The Emergence of Australian Law (1989)...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Australia Physical map Political map Melbourne Sydney Central Sydney Central Sydney...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... The national flag was adopted in 1901. It includes the British Union Flag, reflecting Australia's historic links with Britain. In 1995, the Australian government gave legal recognition to the Native Australian flag and the Torres Strait Islander...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
942 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and in the south‐west corner of Western Australia. Economy Australia’s economy is based on mining, agriculture, and industry. Agricultural land, which is periodically devastated by drought, accounts for 64% of Australia’s territory, almost all of this being devoted to cattle and sheep. Australia is a leading world producer and exporter of wool, beef, wheat, coal, iron ore, aluminium, and other metals. Manufacturing industry is aimed principally at domestic markets. There is also a large service sector. History Australia was first inhabited by Aborigines ...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
893 words
Illustration(s):
5

...New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia federated to create the Commonwealth of Australia. In 1911 , the Northern Territory joined the federation. A range of progressive social welfare policies were adopted, such as old-age pensions ( 1909 ). The federal capital was established ( 1927 ) at Canberra, Australian Capital Territory . Australia fought as a member of the Allies in both world wars. The Battle of the Coral Sea ( 1942 ) prevented a full-scale attack on the continent. Politics Post-1945 Australia steadily realigned itself with...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,755 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Australia Overview A country whose society, economy, and politics until the 1960s were dominated first by its closeness to Britain as part of the British Empire and Commonwealth . Thereafter, Australians began to recognize more clearly the country's geopolitical closeness to Asia. Australia comprises the erstwhile British colonies of New South Wales (which became self-governing in 1855 ), Victoria ( 1855 ), Tasmania ( 1856 ), South Australia ( 1856 , including the Northern Territories ), Queensland ( 1859 ), and Western Australia ( 1890 ). These former...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
5,644 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In all ways but one, Australia is now legally independent of the United Kingdom. The exception is that Australia is still a monarchy: the Queen of the United Kingdom is also the Queen of Australia. In a 1999 referendum, the Australian people rejected the opportunity to become a republic. The passage of the Australia Acts had a strong influence on the shape of the country's judge-made law. In 1986 , the High Court decided that the abolition of appeals to the Privy Council meant that no Australian court should any longer feel bound to follow the...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,365 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and overseas students who had completed their studies. Australia has an increasingly diverse population, but its most distinctive ethnic group are the original inhabitants—the Aborigines. In 2014 it was estimated that there were over 713,000 Aborigines, making up 3 per cent of the population. The Aborigine population is growing at twice the rate of the rest of the Australian population and is also significantly younger. They are the most marginalized part of Australian society: most live in desperate poverty, either in reserves in the outback or in...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,579 words
Illustration(s):
2

... . Australian children's literature has existed in some form for about a century and a half, although books that express a distinctively Australian subjectivity did not emerge until the 1890s. During this relatively short history, it has both been shaped by the culture within which it has been produced and has striven to construct directions for that culture as it continues to unfold and change. Australia . Front cover illustration by Norman Lindsay for The Magic Pudding (Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1918). Reproduced courtesy of the Cotsen Children's...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,271 words
Illustration(s):
1

...has led to land degradation in parts of Australia; for example, some grazing land has been overrun by shrubby weeds, reducing the potential productivity of the land. Bibliography Colls, K. , and R. Whitaker . The Australian Weather Book . Brookvale, New South Wales, Australia, 1990. Linacre, E. , and J. Hobbs . The Australian Climatic Environment . Brisbane, Australia: Wiley, 1972. Sturman, A. , and N. Tapper . The Weather and Climate of Australia and New Zealand . 2d ed. South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press, 2006. Neville...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

James Halliday and Huon Hooke

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
7,900 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Australian style, however, the owners have frequently appointed themselves as hands-on viticulturists and winemakers. Nevertheless, perhaps due to the trickle-down effect of the renowned australian wine research institute at Adelaide and the university wine schools ( see adelaide ), standards are extremely high. The Australian wine show system has also played a major role in promoting technical excellence and in shaping style. The lessons of the show ring have been reinforced by the well-known penchant Australians have for travel. Indeed, Australia...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Australia's midlatitudinal position, the dominance of the subtropical high-pressure system. This climate system causes dry, windy conditions conducive to wildfires in southern Australia during the summer months, and similar “fire weather” during the winter months in northern Australia. El Niño–Southern Oscillation events cause regular cycles of droughts and floods across eastern Australia. These geographic factors rendered Australia particularly vulnerable to the environmental upheavals that followed European colonization. Alexander, N. , ed. Australia:...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,721 words
Illustration(s):
2

...power of trade unions. [ See also Aborigines, Australian ; Prisons and Punishment, subentry Prison Colonies and Islands ; and Tasmania . ] Bibliography Atkinson, Alan . The Europeans in Australia: A History . 2 vols. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1997–2005. Australian Dictionary of Biography. 16 vols. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press; London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1966– . Bolton, Geoffrey , ed. The Oxford History of Australia . 4 vols. Melbourne, Australia, and New York: Oxford University Press,...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,659 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in Australia, 1788–1850 . Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1984. Caine, Barbara , ed. Australian Feminism: A Companion . Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1998. Gothard, Jan . Blue China: Single Female Migration to Colonial Australia . Carlton South, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 2001. Grimshaw, Patricia , Marilyn Lake , Ann McGrath , and Marian Quartly . Creating a Nation . Rev. ed. Perth, Australia: API Network 2006. Kingston, Beverley . My Wife, My Daughter, and Poor Mary Ann: Women and Work in Australia ....

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,087 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Depression in Australia, 1887–1897 . Oxford, 1971. Butlin, N. G. Australian Domestic Product, Investment, and Foreign Borrowing, 1861–1938/39 . Cambridge, 1962. Butlin, N. G. Investment in Australian Economic Development, 1861–1900 . Cambridge, 1964. Gregory, R. G. , and N. G. Butlin , eds. Recovery from the Depression: Australia and the World Economy in the 1930s . Cambridge, 1988. Maddock, Rodney , and Ian W. McLean , eds. The Australian Economy in the Long Run . New York, 1987. Meredith, David , and Barrier Dyster . Australia in the Global...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
15,540 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The address for the Australian Society of Sex Educators, Researchers, and Therapists is: 21 Carr Street, Coogee, New South Wales 2034 Australia. The address for the Western Australian Sexology Society is: c/FPA, 70 Roe Street, Northbridge, Western Australia 6000 Australia. The Journal of Sex and Marriage and the Family , published by the Family Life Movement of Australia, recently changed its name to the Australian Journal of Marriage and Family . Four other Australian journals publish articles of interest to sexologists: Australian Forum , published...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Lawrence Nield

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,057 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Sport is an important part of Australian nationalism and social cohesion. Oval stadia for cricket and Australian rules football (a genuinely Australian invention, the most popular sport with black and white Australians) are found all over the country. They are provided with old and new stands—timber, steel or concrete places for joining and drinking after the game. The Adelaide Oval ( 1882 ) and the Sydney Cricket Ground’s Members and Ladies Stand ( 1880 ) are fine columned verandahs organized around cricket but used for Australian football. The 1980s and ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

T. B. Millar Richard Nile (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,333 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Curtin insisted that Australia make its own declaration of war. Moreover, once the USA had entered the war and the UK's weakness in South-East Asia had been exposed, the Americans became the Australians' main ally. In his prime-ministerial message to the nation on 27 December 1941 , Curtin announced to the world ‘I make it quite clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom.’ The statement marked a turning-point in Australian history. From this point forth, Australia would put its role in...

Australia Station

Australia Station   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
215 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Station was the administrative term for the naval command based on Australian waters (see Map 4 on page 54). In the early years of the colony of New South Wales, ships based in these waters came under the control of the East Indies Station, but in 1859 the British Admiralty delineated a separate station, under the command of a commodore. The decision was in part a recognition of the circumstances in which a good part of the East Indies Station had been detached for duty in Australian waters, and reflected concerns about the strategic situation in the...

Australia, Exploration of

Australia, Exploration of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
2,420 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Discovery of Australia 1606–1756 . London: Luzac, 1899. Lines, John D. Australia on Paper: The Story of Australian Mapping . Melbourne: Fortune, 1992. McLaren, Glen . Beyond Leichhardt: Bushcraft and the Exploration of Australia . Fremantle, Australia: Fremantle Arts Centre Press, 1996. Reprint, 2000. Millar, Ann . I See No End to Travelling: Journals of Australian Explorers 1813–76 . Sydney: Bay Books, 1986. Radok, Rainer . Capes and Captains: A Comprehensive Study of the Australian Coast . Sydney: S. Beatty, 1990. Tiley, Robert . Australian Navigators:...

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