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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account whether elections had consequences, that is, whether elections were subsequently annulled, or followed by a coup d’état or civil war, the total number of consecutive elections that countries have...

The Sahel: Regional Politics and Dynamics

The Sahel: Regional Politics and Dynamics   Reference library

Sebastian Elischer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,858 words
Illustration(s):
2

...conflict of 1989: A fragile equilibrium. Journal of Modern African Studies , 29 (1), 155–171. Pringle, R. (2006). Mali’s unlikely democracy. The Wilson Quarterly , Spring, 31–39. Robinson, P. (1991). Niger: Anatomy of a neotraditional corporatist state. Comparative Politics , 24 (1), 1–20. Robinson, P. (1994). The national conference phenomenon in francophone Africa. Comparative Studies in Society and History , 36 (3), 575–610. Salem, Z. O. A. (2013). Prêcher Dans Le Désert . Paris, France: Karthala. Salifou, A. (1993). La Question...

Epistemic Communities

Epistemic Communities   Reference library

Peter M. Haas

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,846 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of Science.” Research Policy 23 (1994): 487–521. Dunlop, Claire . “Epistemic Communities: A Reply to Toke.” Politics 20, no. 3 (2000): 137–144. Galbraith, J. K. Economics Peace and Laughter . (Boston, 1971a). Galbraith, J. K. “How Keynes Came to America.” In Economics Peace and Laughter , pp. 43–59. (Boston, 1971b). Haas, Peter M. “When Does Power Listen to Truth? A Constructivist Approach to the Policy Process.” Journal of European Public Policy 11, no. 4 (2004): 569–592. Haas, Peter M. , ed. Knowledge, Power, and International Policy...

Colonial Rule and Its Political Legacies in Africa

Colonial Rule and Its Political Legacies in Africa   Reference library

Amanda Lea Robinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,804 words
Illustration(s):
1

...investment, showing that by the beginning of the 20th century , there were over 700 different Protestant mission stations across the continent. This imperialist expansion culminated in the Scramble for Africa in the 1880s, and the Berlin Conference in late 1884 , at which European powers agreed on the conditions required for colonial claims. Over the next decade, the vast majority of sub-Saharan Africa was colonized, at least on paper, by one of the European colonial powers. Figure 1 shows a map of contemporary sub-Saharan Africa states and the...

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa   Reference library

Adrienne LeBas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,154 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Studies , 20 , 516–541. Zolberg, A. (1966). Creating political order: The party-states of West Africa . Chicago, IL: Rand McNally. Notes 1. Exceptions are notable for their rarity. See Widner, 1992 . 2. As noted in the table, a few have not quite been in power 20 years, have suffered brief interruptions, or have lost a majority in parliament while retaining control of the executive. Adrienne LeBas 1. Exceptions are notable for their rarity. See Widner, 1992 . 2. As noted in the table, a few have not quite been in power 20 years, have...

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Kate M. Carter and Scott Straus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,906 words
Illustration(s):
6

... 1960 to 2008 , there are some 20 distinct episodes in sub-Saharan Africa (with a total of 46 states), compared to 22 total episodes in Asia (with a total of some 34 states), and compared to eight episodes in the Middle East (with a total of 22 states). Thus, neither in relative terms nor in absolute terms is sub-Saharan Africa the regional leader in terms of incidents of mass killing in which 10,000 civilians were killed. Looked at longitudinally, there is consistency in frequency of episodes of mass killing per decade, with a peak in the 1980s. During the...

Welfare Politics in Africa

Welfare Politics in Africa   Reference library

Jeremy Seekings

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,567 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 2015 through a total of 80 programs in 37 countries (see Hickey, Lavers, Niño-Zarazúa, & Seekings, 2018 , Table A1). This figure probably overestimates the number of direct beneficiaries of cash transfers but ignores both the larger number of people who benefit from school and other food programs and the even larger number of people who benefit indirectly insofar as they share a household with a direct recipient. The World Bank’s most recent estimate is that about 20% of households across Africa benefit from some kind of social protection. There are also...

Comparative Analysis in African Politics

Comparative Analysis in African Politics   Reference library

Goran Hyden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,086 words
Illustration(s):
1

...20. Helsinki, Finland: World Institute of Development and Economic Research. Easton, D. (1965). A systems analysis of political life . New York, NY: Wiley. Ekeh, P. (1975). Colonialism and the two publics in Africa: A theoretical statement. Comparative Studies in Society and History , 17 (1), 91–112. Elischer, S. , Erdmann, G. , & Stroh, A. (2011). Can historical institutionalism be allied to political regime development in Africa? GIGA Working Paper No 165. Hamburg, Germany: German Institute for Global and Area Studies. Elklit, J. , & Reynolds, A. ...

The Politics of Language Education in Africa

The Politics of Language Education in Africa   Reference library

Russell H. Kaschula and Michael M. Kretzer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,237 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(MoI) throughout the school system under the prevailing circumstances amounts to defeating the very purpose of teaching a foreign language: teachers and pupils alike almost never reach an acceptable standard of competence in the official language(s) in the lower cycles of formal education” (p. 20). One only becomes proficient in a language when the right conditions exist, such as proper teaching of the language and exposure to the language on a daily basis. This emerging linguicism or English monolingualism in South Africa is based on the constitutional...

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics   Reference library

Dominic Burbidge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...by one-half group per household (or changing group characteristics to a similar degree) […] the estimates suggest that this would increase expected incomes by 20%–50%, which is an impressively large effect” ( Pritchett, 1999 , p. 274). Their path-breaking survey further suggests that social capital in rural Tanzania is “truly social ” (p. 273) because “there is an independent effect at the village level” not observed in individual households ( Pritchett, 1999 , p. 272). 3 This is a beginning step in asking how much trust works against poverty , though...

Experimental Research in African Politics

Experimental Research in African Politics   Reference library

George Kwaku Ofosu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,237 words
Illustration(s):
2

...for different purposes. Therefore, theories should reflect this possibility. Similar to Vicente’s finding in STP, Kramon ( 2016b ) demonstrated that vote buying may be effective among Kenyan voters. Using a list survey experiment, Kramon found that 20% to 25% of a nationally representative sample of citizens agreed with the statement that they “voted for a party or politician because they gave you money during the campaign.” The list-survey results contrasted with results for the direct version of the sensitive question, wherein only about 7% of respondents...

Democracy Promotion in Africa

Democracy Promotion in Africa   Reference library

Oda van Cranenburgh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,399 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on political party assistance include the short-term and electoral focus. Moreover, policies tended to be supply- or donor-driven, which also implies a top-down and external impetus for party development ( Burnell, 2006 , p. 20). Carothers ( 2006 ) shows that Western policymakers tend to follow a universal model in this field, disregarding differences in time, region, and context. The standard approach uses a “mythic” model of parties in the West ( Carothers, 2006 , p. 123). Moreover, it disregards issues of political power. Party support should be improved...

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism   Reference library

Jaimie Bleck and Nicolas van de Walle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,268 words
Illustration(s):
1

...20, compared to a global average of 30. 8. The Westminster Foundation for Democracy reported that transportation costs accounted for 25% to 30% of the total campaign cost for a typical Ghanaian MP in recent elections. 9. As reported in McNamee, Hamukoma, and Mwanawasa ( 2017 , p. 13). 10. See the Internet edition of the Daily Monitor for July 10, 2016 (http://www.monitor.co.ug/) . 11. Rauschenbach’s interview with a member of NDC’s national campaign team (2015). 12. South Africans are among the most active users in the world, spending 3.2 hours a...

The Structure and Performance of African Electoral Commissions

The Structure and Performance of African Electoral Commissions   Reference library

Jørgen Elklit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,939 words
Illustration(s):
1

...often the same; that is, there is a policymaking, supervisory body (“the commission”) headed by a chairperson and a policy-implementing secretariat (the election administration) with a CEO (chief electoral officer) at the helm. The specific manifestations of this model—which resembles the organizational chart of many corporate firms as well as many organizations with a policymaking board headed by a chairperson and the implementing part of the organization under a CEO (here, chief executive officer)—most certainly reflect a large number of local factors and...

Slum Politics in Africa

Slum Politics in Africa   Reference library

Jacqueline M. Klopp and Jeffrey W. Paller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,872 words
Illustration(s):
5

...of electoral clientelism in Africa . New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. LeBas, A. (2013). Violence and urban order in Nairobi, Kenya and Lagos, Nigeria. Studies in Comparative International Development , 48 (3), 240–262. Lindberg, S. I. (2010). What accountability pressures do MPs in Africa face and how do they respond? Evidence from Ghana. Journal of Modern African Studies , 48 (1), 117–142. Lines, K. , & Makau, J. (2018). Taking the long view: 20 years of Muungano wa Wanavijiji, the Kenyan federation of slum dwellers. Environment and...

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa   Reference library

Wilson Prichard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,764 words
Illustration(s):
3

...any income taxes, only 20% of the country’s top lawyers had paid income taxes, and only 1 of 71 top-ranking government officials paid any income tax other than on their salaries, despite evidence of extensive real estate and business holdings ( Kangave et al., 2016 ). Similar examples of politicization are apparent elsewhere. Many governments, for example, do not pursue large stocks of tax arrears, owing, apparently, to a lack of political commitment to confronting tax avoiders. This lack of effective enforcement has, for example, been a continuous problem for...

Organized Crime and Criminal Networks in Africa

Organized Crime and Criminal Networks in Africa   Reference library

Mark Shaw and Tuesday Reitano

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,650 words
Illustration(s):
1

...these groups often seem more legitimate and earn a greater degree of trust in the eyes of local populations ( Reitano & Hunter, 2016 ). The large informal economy in many African countries—ranging between 20% and 80% of total economic activity—contributes to this dynamic. State clientelism, rent-seeking, and impunity for graft further contribute to an economic free-for-all among the populations of certain countries and regions ( OECD/AFDB, 2018 ). Certain forms of criminal activity have become, therefore, a means of survival, resilience, and Robin Hood-style...

West, The

West, The   Reference library

Deena J. González

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,132 words
Illustration(s):
2

...121,000 Latino/as, including 11 percent who are foreign-born and a total of 96.1 percent who are either native or naturalized Latino/a-origin citizens. Far younger than the 44.5 median age for white Hawaiians, over one-third of Latino/as living in Hawaii either held an associate’s degree or had some college attendance. Although the median income of Latino/as in Hawaii is nearly $20,000 a year less than that of white households, Latino/a households held an owner-occupied residence nearly equal to that of whites. Latino/as in Hawaii face some particular challenges...

Marielitos

Marielitos   Reference library

Félix Masud-Piloto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,053 words
Illustration(s):
1

...thousand asylum-seekers crowded into the embassy grounds. A group of Cubans wait to embark aboard a boat to US shores at the port in Mariel Harbor, 20 miles west of Havana, Cuba, in May 1980 . ap photo / prensa latina via ap images / joaquin vinas In an angry response to the unexpectedly large crowd congregated at the embassy, the Cuban government labeled those who accepted the offer to emigrate “antisocial,” “criminals,” “counterrevolutionaries,” “deviants,” and “parasites” incapable of living in a revolutionary society. The official press relentlessly...

What is Theory?

What is Theory?   Reference library

Patrick Thaddeus Jackson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,099 words
Illustration(s):
2

... References Abbott, A. (2001) Chaos of Disciplines . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Abella, A. (2008) Soldiers of Reason: The RAND Corporation and the Rise of the American Empire , 1st edn. Orlando, FL: Harcourt. Ashley, R.K. (1984) The Poverty of Neorealism. International Organization 38 (2), 225–86. Ball, T. (1976) From Paradigms to Research Programs: Toward a Post-Kuhnian Political Science. American Journal of Political Science 20 (1), 151–77. Banks, M. (1985) The Inter-Paradigm Debate. In M. Light and A. J. R. Groom (eds.) ...

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