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Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

vajra

vajra   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...vajra symbolizes skilful means ( upāya-kauśalya ) in contrast to insight ( prajñā ). In Japanese Shingon , the vajra is associated with the concept of the Vajra Realm which is derived from the Sarva-tathāgata-tattva-saṃgraha . Fig 20...

Ephesians

Ephesians   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...6:17 ). While a comparison with Paul's appeal in 1 Thessalonians 5:8 that focuses on wording (“put on… for a helmet the hope of salvation”) may lead to the conclusion that the eschatology of Ephesians is too realized to be Pauline, a more comprehensive look at Paul shows that this judgment is too rigid. For we find already in the undisputed Pauline letters a realized soteriology of cosmic reconciliation (“in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself”) which needs to be appropriated by the audience (“be reconciled to God,” 2 Cor 5:19–20 ; et al.)....

Pesharim

Pesharim   Reference library

James Hamilton Charlesworth and Henry W. Morisada Rietz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,494 words
Illustration(s):
1

...7, 9–11, 20, and 26 line 5), “the Sons of Light” (frgs. 7, 9–11, 20, and 26 line 7; frgs. 12–13 1.9), and the “congregation of the seekers after sm[o]oth things” (frgs. 7, 9–11, 20, and 26 line 12). Like Florilegium, Catena A uses a pesher formula only sporadically to introduce its commentary (frgs. 1–4, 14, 24, and 31 1.6; frgs. 7, 9–11, 20, and 26 line 9). Other Occurrences of the Word “Pesher” and Commentaries. The word pesher is also used in a few other documents associated with the Qumran caves. It appears in a Commentary on Genesis A (4Q252 frg. 5...

Ezekiel

Ezekiel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,981 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 20:23 ; 22:15 ) they will be gathered and returned to their homeland (e.g., 34:13 ; 36:24 ; 37:1–23 ). The destroyed mountains, hills, and valleys of Israel ( ch. 6 ) will be restored ( 36:1–15 ; see also 36:33–36 ). In place of broken covenants ( ch. 12 , 16 , 19 ), there will be a new covenant ( 34:25–31 ). The people who had become unclean ( chs. 16 , 20 , 22 , 23 , 24:1–14 ) will be cleansed ( 36:25–30 ). The people who had a heart problem ( 3:7 ; 6:9 ; 11:21 ; 16:30 ; 20:16 ) will be given a new heart ( 36:26 ). The Lord , who left a...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Reinhard Achenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,608 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., 14–17 , 24–30 God gives the spirit of Moses to 70 elders X 12:1–2 *, 9a , 10a *, 13–15 , 16 The conflict between Moses and Miriam and Aaron at Hazeroth concerning Moses’ Cushite wife X 12:3–8 , 9b , 10b , 11–12 and against Moses’ authority as mediator of God’s word X 13:17b–20 , 22–24 , 27–28 , 30–31 ; 14:1b , 23–24 , 25b , 40–44a , 44b , 45 The story of the spies and the murmuring of the Israelites at Kadesh X 13:1–3a , 21 , 25–26 , 32–33 ; 14:1a , 2–22 , 25a , 26–39; The murmuring of Israel against Moses’ authority X 13:3b–16 The...

Revelation

Revelation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,842 words
Illustration(s):
3

...John, a prophet, has a vision of a heavenly figure ( 1:9–20 ), records messages to seven churches ( 2:1—3:22 ), ascends to heaven ( 4:1 ) where he sees a vision of God on his throne ( 4:2–11 ) and the Lamb ( 5:1–14 ). Thereafter, he experiences visions of God's judgment of the wicked, in particular, the judgment of Rome ( 6:1–21:8 ). This all culminates with a vision of the descent of the heavenly Jerusalem, where the faithful will dwell ( 21:9—22:7 ). A more careful analysis indicates that this is only part of the story. John's visions are embedded in a letter...

Exodus

Exodus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,980 words
Illustration(s):
4

...; 8:20–23 [ Heb. 8:16–19 ]; 9:8–12 7–11 * Passover 12:1–20 , 28 , 40–51 12:21–39 Victory at the Re(e)d Sea 14:1–4 , 8–10 , 15–18 , 21–23 13:20–22 ; 14:5b , 6 , 13–14 , 19b , 20 , 24 , 25b , 27aa , 30–31 13:17–19 ; 145a , 7 , 11–12 , 19a , 25a The Wilderness Journey ( Exod 15:22–18:27 ) Story P J E Manna 16:1–3 , 6–27 , 32–35a 16:4–5 , 28–31 , 35b , 36 Water from the Rock 17:1–7 War with Amalek 17:8–16 Jethro's Instruction 18:1–27 The Revelation at the Mountain of God ( Exod 19:1–40:38 ) Story P J E Theophany 19:1–2a 19:2b ,...

John, Gospel According to

John, Gospel According to   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,892 words
Illustration(s):
3

...( 12:12—20:31 ) 1. The Farewell Discourses ( 13–17 ) a. Models and anti-models: Footwashing, a new commandment, and two denials ( 13:1–38 ) b. The agents show the way ( 14:1–31 ) c. A new intimacy: the vine and the branches ( 15:1—16:33 ) d. The World and the Glory in the Son's prayer ( 17:1–26 ) 2. The lifting up begins: Betrayal to burial ( 18:1—19:42 ) a. The final denials: Priest, Pilate and Peter ( 18:1—19:16 ) b. Crucifixion, death, and burial ( 19:16b–19:42 ) 3. “That you might continue to believe”: The living Bridegroom ( 20:1–31 ) G. The...

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy   Reference library

Bernard M. Levinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,604 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Israel had fallen under the Neo-Assyrian invasion a scant century before ( 722 b.c.e. ; 2 Kgs 17 ). Continuing Assyrian incursions down the coastal littoral had all but reduced Judah to a rump-state ( 2 Kgs 18:13 ). In a desperate bid to preserve the nation's autonomy, Hezekiah had already made a pact with Assyria ( 2 Kgs 18:13–18 ). Subsequently, Judah's political and religious independence seemed to hover uncertainly between the threats presented by Assyria and resurgent Babylon ( 2 Kgs 20:12–15 ). The resulting military allegiances led to...

Matthew, Gospel According to

Matthew, Gospel According to   Reference library

Anders Runesson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,029 words
Illustration(s):
3

...where he reveals himself to his disciples in order to send them on a worldwide mission. Within this chronological framework, which is enveloped by a thematic inclusio with reassurance of God's continuous presence among the people ( 1:23 / 28:20 ; cf. 10:20 ), traditions are structured in alternating discourses and narrative sections. There are five such major discourses, their beginnings and endings all clearly marked in the text. An introductory section, in two parts, to the gospel as a whole leads up to the first of these alternating discourses and...

Source Criticism

Source Criticism   Reference library

David M. Carr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,614 words
Illustration(s):
1

...benefit of independent manuscript attestation of a biblical source, much as seems to be the case with the Ezra and Nehemiah materials. Some additional cases of such independent attestation of a possible source of poetic parts of the Bible include the oracle in Psalm 89:20–38 (ET 89:19–37), which is also attested on a separate scroll at Qumran (4QPs x ) and Psalm 20 , which is attested in an alternate edition in the Amherst Papyrus 63 12, 11–19. Nevertheless, in these and similar cases, we have come a good distance from the hypothesized interwoven...

Job

Job   Reference library

Brennan W. Breed and C. Davis Hankins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,664 words
Illustration(s):
1

...D. J. A. “The Arguments of Job's Three Friends.” In Art and Meaning: Rhetoric in Biblical Literature , edited by D. Clines , D. Gunn and A. Hauser , 199–214. Sheffield, U.K.: JSOT, 1982. Clines, D. J. A. Job 1–20 . Dallas: Word Books, 1989. Clines, D. J. A. Job 21–37 . Dallas: Word Books, 2006. Dhorme, E. P. A Commentary on the Book of Job . Translated by H. Knight . London: Nelson, 1967. Dick, M. B. “The Legal Metaphor in Job 31 .” Catholic Biblical Quaterly 41 (1979): 37–50. Driver, S. R. , and G. B. Gray . A Critical...

Luke, Gospel According to

Luke, Gospel According to   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,728 words
Illustration(s):
1

...], 33.4–5 [ Luke 1:26–35 ]; Dial. 81.4 [ Luke 20:35–36 ], 105.5 [ Luke 23:46 ]), dating to the middle of the second century (Gregory 2003 , pp. 211–292) . Whether Justin made direct use of the gospel or relied on a gospel harmony that included passages from Luke has long been a matter of scholarly dispute and probably cannot be resolved. In addition to Justin, his contemporary Marcion seems also to have known a gospel very similar to Luke, but the precise relationship of Marcion's gospel to Luke is also a matter of dispute. The older view that Marcion...

Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Illustration(s):
2

...breaking a jug 20:1–6 Jeremiah in conflict with priestly authority 20:7–12 Jeremiah's sixth lament 20:13 exhortation to praise God for deliverance 20:14–18 Jeremiah?s seventh lament IV. Against the Jerusalem leadership ( 21:1—29:32 ) 21:1—23:40 against kings and false prophets 21:1–14 against Zedekiah and his followers 22:1–9 holding Davidic kings accountable 22:10–12 against Shallum (Jehoahaz) 22:13–19 against Jehoiakim 22:20–23 against Zion 22:24–30 against Coniah 23:1–4 against evil shepherds (that is, kings) 23:5–8 promises: a righteous...

1 and 2 Kings

1 and 2 Kings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,163 words
Illustration(s):
3

...extensively, by means of a snippet from a Judean chronicle ( 18:13–16 ), and two interwoven prophetic narratives ( 18:17—19:37 ), the story of the Assyrian response, a military campaign against Judah and the threat to Jerusalem, that reached its climax in the divine deliverance of the Lord 's city and the Davidic monarchy. Other events in Hezekiah's rule are briefly treated, including the king's illness ( 20:1–11 ) and his dealings with the Chaldean Merodach-baladan ( 20:12–15 ). Manasseh son of Hezekiah reigned for over a half-century, and he is...

1 Corinthians

1 Corinthians   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,735 words
Illustration(s):
1

...body belongs to the Lord and is the temple of the Holy Spirit ( cf. 3:16–17 ). No believer should unite with a prostitute precisely because the body is destined for resurrection and is a member of Christ. As such it is to be the sphere of God's glory, not of sexual immorality ( 6:12–20 ). 7:1—16:12 Paul's Response to a Letter from the Corinthian Church. In chapter seven Paul turns his attention to a letter he had received from the churches posing a series of questions. Even if Paul's relationship with certain segments of the churches was beginning to feel...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,059 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Library International ( Gen 9:20–27 ) echoes parts of the garden of Eden story ( Gen 2:4—3:24 ), with Noah as the first vintner ( 9:20 ; cf. Adam as first farmer 2:15 ), who experiences problems from his produce (drunkenness in 9:20–21 ; see 3:2–19 ), involving nakedness ( 9:22 ; see 3:7 ) and a final pronouncement of judgment ( 9:25–27 ; 3:14–19 ). The Noah story also parallels the Cain and Abel account, especially its focus on a division between brothers ( 9:21–23 ; see 4:4–8 ) and misdeed by one of them that leads to a curse ( 9:25–26 ; see 4:11–12...

Proverbs

Proverbs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,355 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( 1:1 ), a prologue ( 1:2–5 ), warnings against evildoers ( 1:8–19 ), and an introduction to the figure of Wisdom in prophetic terms ( 1:20–33 ). There are ten instructions in the section in 1:8–19 ; 2:1–22 ; 3:1–12 ; 3:21–35 ; 4:1–9 ; 4:10–19 ; 4:20–27 ; 5:1–23 ; 6:20–35 ; 7:1–27 (see Whybray, Proverbs 1994 ) punctuated by other poems about Wisdom in 3:13–20 and chapter 8 . There are also small sections of autobiographical narrative such as 7:6–20 . Proverbs 10:1—22:16 : “The Proverbs of Solomon,” Part 2. This is a miscellany of...

Isaiah

Isaiah   Reference library

Christopher B. Hays

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,039 words
Illustration(s):
4

...strikes a more cautious note: is the return of the remnant a sign of divine grace or a threat (“ only a remnant.…”)? Like the prophet's nudist period in Isaiah 20 (see below), these extravagant sign-acts probably strike the reader as somewhat bizarre and unlikely. In comparison with the reports of the actions of prophets elsewhere in the ancient Near East, however, they appear, if no less striking, then at least slightly more plausible (cf., e.g., the odd symbolic behavior of a Mari prophet who demands and then devours an uncooked lamb at a city gate in...

1 and 2 Samuel

1 and 2 Samuel   Reference library

Rebecca S. Hancock

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,699 words
Illustration(s):
3

...about the monarchy. After he had been judging for some time and had become old, Samuel decided to put his sons in a leadership position following him ( 1 Sam 8:1 ). This appears to be an attempt to establish a dynasty of his own. However, because of the corruption of his sons, the people demand from Samuel a king instead. Samuel also function as a “seer” ( 1 Sam 9:6–20 ) connected to a band of prophets. As a prophet Samuel functions as a “kingmaker” who anoints both Saul and David, but also as the one with the power to depose kings should they disobey...

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