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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Venn diagram

Venn diagram   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
219 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that some S is indeed P; hence the syllogism is valid. Venn generalized the method. For statements in the algebra of classes involving four terms, ellipses can be drawn, but the method becomes cumbersome. Strips and charts of various kinds were invented in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to give graphical representations of such...

Smeaton, John

Smeaton, John (1724–92)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,088 words
Illustration(s):
6

...m 1 v 1 2 + m 2 v 2 2 = ( 8 × 20 2 ) + ( 8 × 0 2 ) = 3200. After collision, if mv 2 is conserved we must have ( m 1 + m 2 ) × v 3 2 = 3200 16 v 3 2 = 3200 v 3 2 = 200 v 3 = 10 × √ 2 = 14.142 … So the velocity is increased in the collision by a factor of √2 and this, says Smeaton, implies the possibility of perpetual motion. The conception of perfectly hard bodies is therefore ‘repugnant’, that is, incoherent. According to the old opinion, it is mv that is conserved. Before collision, m 1 v 1 + m 2 v 2 = ( 8 × 20 ) + ( 8 × 0 ) = 160 and after...

MacColl, Hugh

MacColl, Hugh (1837–1909)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,465 words
Illustration(s):
12

...pp.9–20. ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements (II) ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol.9 (1877–8), pp.177–86. ‘ Symbolic[al] Reasoning (I) ’, Mind , vol.5 ns (1880), pp.45–60. ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements (V) ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol.28 (1896–7), pp.156–83. ‘ Symbolic[al] Reasoning (II) ’, Mind , vol.6 ns (1897), pp.493–510. ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements (VII) ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol.29 (1897–8), pp.98–109. Review of Alfred North Whitehead's ‘ A...

logic

logic   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
5,744 words
Illustration(s):
2

...‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements and Integration Limits ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol. 9 (1877–8), pp. 9–20. Marciszewski, Witold and Roman Murawski , Mechanization of Reasoning in Historical Perspective. Pozna_ Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities , vol. 43 (Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1995). Mill, John Stuart , A System of Logic , Ratiocinative and Inductive, Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation , 2 vols (1843); repr. as vols 7 and 8 of ...

Whewell, William

Whewell, William (1794–1866)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
9,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(1970), pp.419–31. Crowe, M. J. , The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750–1900 : The Idea of a Plurality of Worlds from Kant to Lowell (Cambridge, 1986). Fisch, M. and S. Schaffer (eds), William Whewell: A Composite Portrait (Oxford, 1991). Morrell, J. and A. Thackray , Gentlemen of Science: Early Years of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Oxford, 1981). Ruse, M. , ‘ The Scientific Methodology of William Whewell ’, Centaurus , vol.20 (1976), pp.227–57. ——, The Darwinian Revolution: Science Red in Tooth and Claw (Chicago,...

Einstein, Carl

Einstein, Carl (1885–1940)   Reference library

Charles W. Haxthausen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
1,855 words
Illustration(s):
1

...author of Negerplastik ( 1915 ; “Negro Sculpture,” 2004 ), a landmark in the European reception of African art; the two major books of his maturity, Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts (Art of the 20th Century; 1926 , 1928 , 1931 ), in its time the most substantive study in any language of its subject, and Georges Braque ( 1934 ), the summa of Einstein’s mature aesthetic theory, have only recently been partially translated into English. Einstein’s writings on art, which constitute the bulk of a corpus that spans politics, literary criticism, art history,...

Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Alexander Rehding

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,706 words
Illustration(s):
2

...typically communicated by air molecules that are sensed by our eardrums and then processed in the brain. While the domain of acoustics has traditionally been the audible range from approximately 20 to 20,000 Hz (i.e., waves vibrating between 20 and 20,000 cycles per second), modern scientific acoustics also concerns infrasound (below 20 Hz) or ultrasound (above 20,000 Hz), both of which are inaudible to humans. Acoustics is applied in numerous practical fields, including musical instruments and tuning systems, sound engineering, speech processing,...

Peace

Peace   Reference library

Willard M. Swartley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,009 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., 22 ; 25:5 ; 30:21 ; 38:4 ). Inquiry about a person’s welfare includes everything conducive to healthful living: cohesive community and good relationships with relatives and neighbors. “Shalom be with you” is a common greeting ( Judg 6:24 ; 19:20 ; 1 Sam 25:6 ; 2 Sam 18:28 ; Pss 122:6 ; 125:5 ; 128:6 ). Similarly, the farewell blessing, “Go in peace,” occurs across the testaments ( Judg 18:6 ; 1 Sam 1:17 ; Jdt 8:35 ; Mark 5:34 ; Luke 7:50 ; Acts 16:36 ). “Seek and pursue peace” is a moral imperative ( Ps 34:14 [ Heb 34: 15 and...

Bourgeois, Louise

Bourgeois, Louise (1911–2010)   Reference library

Mignon Nixon

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Architecture as a Study in Memory.” In Louise Bourgeois: Memory and Architecture . Madrid: Museu Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, 1999. Krauss, Rosalind . “Portrait of the Artist as Fillette .” In Louise Bourgeois , edited by Peter Weiermair , pp. 210–216. Otterlo, The Netherlands: Rijksmuseum Kroller-Muller, 1991. Larratt-Smith, Philip , ed. Louise Bourgeois: The Return of the Repressed—Psychoanalytic Writings . London: Violette Editions, 2012. Lippard, Lucy R. “Eccentric Abstraction.” Art International 10 (20 November 1966): 28,...

Land

Land   Reference library

Karen J. Wenell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...dispensationalism looks to Christ’s thousand-year reign on earth ( Rev 20:1–8 ) and sees the gathering of Jews to Palestine/Israel as a precursor to the second coming. Such views are associated with Christian Zionism, which is not well represented in scholarship as it tends to be evidenced in more popular writings, yet its impact on American (and British) foreign policy has been analyzed by a number of scholars. Among these are Weber ( 2004 ), Clark ( 2007 ), and Spector ( 2009 ), who do not concentrate on the interpretation of biblical material as such,...

Video

Video   Reference library

James M. Moran

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...64–69. London: SAGE, 1990. Hall, Doug , and Sally Jo Fifer , eds. Illuminating Video: An Essential Guide to Video Art . New York: Aperture, 1990. Hanhardt, John G. , ed. Video Culture: A Critical Investigation . Layton, Utah: Peregrine Smith, 1986. James, David E. “in TerVention: The Contexts of Negation for Video and Video Criticism.” Millennium Film Journal 20/21 (Fall/Winter 1988–1989): 46–55. Jameson, Fredric . “Video: Surrealism without the Unconscious.” In Postmodernism: or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism , pp. 67–96. Durham, N.C.: Duke...

Rabbinic Literature

Rabbinic Literature   Reference library

John T. Townsend

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
7,663 words
Illustration(s):
1

... is a chronology extending from Adam to the death of R. Hatsuv in ca. 800 c.e. Named sages. Rabbinic literature commonly cites sages or their schools from which a certain teaching derives. The accuracy of such designations is much discussed, and different parts of Rabbinic literature associate the same material with different sages. However, contradictory attributions tend to allude to sages of the same generation. The following table presents generational dating: Pre-Tannaitic = ca. 20 b.c.e –10 c.e. A1 = ca. 200–260 T1 = ca. 10–80 A1a = ca....

African Aesthetics

African Aesthetics   Reference library

Barry Hallen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,682 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with African objects on a purely formal level ( Rubin, 1984 , p. 20). “For Picasso, who usually did not even distinguish between African and Oceanic art, tribal sculpture represented primarily an elective affinity and secondarily a substance to be cannibalized” (p. 14). What is remarkable about the passage quoted above, then, is the insight it provides into how this apparently significant aesthetic experience influenced Picasso to associate African forms with the spiritual, and that at this point he too saw this as a dimension of his own work....

Anthropology

Anthropology   Reference library

Susanne Küchler

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,465 words
Illustration(s):
1

...“objects constitute social systems and would have no recognisability if they did not” (p. 20). Douglas summarizes with her excurse on the “genuine article” anthropology’s long-standing recognition that aesthetics is a function not merely of language, but of the skill to discriminate in context. The socialness of concepts of value and taste and their activation in the making of “distinctions” were demonstrated by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu ( 1984 ), who offers a concise examination of the social parameters of discrimination (see also Price, 1993 ,...

Gift

Gift   Reference library

Dirk Quadflieg

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,802 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Malinowski, one of the founding fathers of modern anthropology, gives a detailed description of the kula , in which specific pieces of jewelry made of shells circulate in a kind of endless ring between the islands. Again, these gifts establish a perpetual social bond among the kula partners based on the obligation to repay a gift—sometimes months or a year later—with “interest,” as Mauss puts it ( Mauss, 1966 , p. 20). Yet contrary to the warlike potlatch, the kula ring establishes a peaceful interchange among numerous tribes lasting generations. Moving...

Roman Aesthetics

Roman Aesthetics   Reference library

Richard Brilliant

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,447 words
Illustration(s):
1

...knowledge, the Natural History . Augustus of Prima Porta, ca . 20 bce (marble), Roman. vatican museums and galleries, vatican city / the bridgeman art library Even Pliny’s views about artworks and artists, if one can so dignify them, were shaped by Greek classicizing standards with little reference to past or present Roman artistic practice or taste beyond the most banal comments or annalistic remarks. He even repeated the received dogma that artistic creativity ended in the late second century bce (deinde cessavit ars) , although the creative...

Information Theory

Information Theory   Reference library

Meredith Hoy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,677 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and tabulated demographic information of visitors in real time, as well as their reported opinions about a variety of cultural issues. This profiling of museum attendees in terms of statistical information instantiates the cultural imagination of the time, suffused with dreams and critiques of the capabilities and limitations of information-processing systems. Installation view of the exhibition Information . Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2 July–20 November 1970 . digital image © museum of modern art / licensed by scala / art resource, new york In some sense...

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig (1886–1969)   Reference library

K. Michael Hays

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,977 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... 20 vols. Edited by Arthur Drexler . New York: Garland, 1986–1992. Neumeyer, Fritz . The Artless Word: Mies van der Rohe on the Building Art . Translated by Mark Jarzombek . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. Quetglas, José . “Fear of Glass: The Barcelona Pavilion.” In Architectureproduction , edited by Beatriz Colomina , pp. 122–151. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1988. Riley, Terrance , Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani , and Barry Bergdoll . Mies in Berlin . New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2002. Schulze, Franz . Mies van der Rohe: A...

Constructivism

Constructivism   Reference library

Daniel Herwitz

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,586 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1977, reprint, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993. Lewison, Jeremy , ed. Circle: Constructive Art in Britain, 1934–1940 . Cambridge, U.K.: Kettle’s Yard Gallery, 1982. Catalog of the exhibition Circles: International Survey of Constructive Art, held at Kettle’s Yard Gallery, 20 February–24 March 1982. See “Constructive Art” by Naum Gabo, pp. 59–61. Milner, John . Vladimir Tatlin and the Russian Avant-Garde . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press 1983. Nisbet, Peter , ed. El Lissitzky, 1890–1941: Catalogue for an Exhibition of Selected Works from North...

Relational Aesthetics

Relational Aesthetics   Reference library

Beata Hock

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,230 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Situationist Aesthetics .] Bibliography Bishop, Clare . “Antagonism and Relational Aesthetics.” October 110 (2004): 51–79. Bourriaud, Nicolas . “Precarious Constructions: Answer to Jacques Rancière on Art and Politics.” Cahier on Art and the Public Domain Open 17 (2009): 20–37. Bourriaud, Nicolas . Relational Aesthetics . Translated by Simon Pleasance and Fronza Woods with the participation of Mathieu Copeland. Dijon, France: Les Presses du Réel, 2002. English version of Esthétique relationnelle , first published 1998. Debord, Guy . The Society...

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