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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

The Taming of the Shrew

The Taming of the Shrew   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,052 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...husband bets 20 crowns that his wife will return most obediently when summoned. Bianca and the Widow refuse to come, but Katherine comes immediately, and at Petruccio’s bidding fetches the other two wives, throws off her hat, and preaches a long homily on wifely obedience, thereby winning him the wager. A delighted Baptista adds another 20,000 crowns to Petruccio’s winnings. (In The Taming of a Shrew , Sly, now asleep, is put back into his own clothes and returned to where the Lord found him: awakened at dawn by a tapster, he says he has had a wonderful...

Troilus and Cressida

Troilus and Cressida   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,065 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...frequency between 1679 and 1734 ) before the 20th century. Even Dryden’s version was most praised for its new scenes, notably a quarrel and reconciliation between Troilus and Hector and a rhetorical confrontation between Troilus and Diomedes. The original was first revived in Munich in 1898 (played, by an all-male cast, as a blackly comic skit on Homer) and other German productions followed. The play was at last revived semi-professionally, to an unconvinced London audience, in 1907 , and a similar venture by William Poel in 1912–13 is...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...’s Cleopatra , felt by some to be ‘too English’ (a complaint still often raised against British actresses by critics with a more exotic, Orientalist view of the role). In the later 20th century, many directors tried to solve this problem by scaling down both performances and the entire play: Trevor Nunn ’s much-praised RSC production of 1972 , with Janet Suzman as Cleopatra, used a comparatively simple set, and Peter Brook ’s of 1978 (his last work for the company), with Glenda Jackson as Cleopatra, a stylized setting framed by glass panels. ( Peter...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in the part, though some commentators preferred his successor John E. McCullough , who played Coriolanus in a more intellectually superior style in 1878 . Despite some notable revivals at the Old Vic in the 1920s, the play did not enjoy particular prominence in the 20th century until the rise of fascist movements across Europe brought it a renewed topicality. In France in 1934 the Action Française party induced the Comédie-Française to stage a version of the play which treated it as an all-out attack on democracy (stimulating violent demonstrations...

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...own invention, though the play draws on a number of literary sources. The most important is Chaucer ’s Knight’s Tale, to which Shakespeare would return, with Fletcher , nearly 20 years later, dramatizing it as The Two Noble Kinsmen . Chaucer’s story provides the basis for Shakespeare’s depiction of Theseus and Hippolyta’s marriage, which it juxtaposes, furthermore, with a rivalry between two men for the same woman, source for the competition between Lysander and Demetrius over Hermia. Shakespeare, however, adds a second woman, Helena, who has earlier been...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...und Frauen , 1839 ), opined that even if Shakespeare had consciously intended Shylock to be a monster his humanity had led him to write a vindication of the Jews. The argument between those who insist that Shakespeare was exposing his Christians’ hypocrisy rather than attacking Judaism, and those who claim that all Elizabethans were automatically anti-Semitic and would have found Shylock’s torments hilarious, continues to this day, though since the early 20th century accounts of Shylock’s significance (such as that offered by Auden in 1948 ) have been...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...personification of republican values, a Hamlet-like contemplative idealist too naive for public life, or a zealot committed to bloodless theories at the expense of flesh and blood. In the earlier 20th century the play’s structural kinship with two plays about regicide, Richard III and, especially, Macbeth , was frequently noted. Since the Second World War Julius Caesar has enjoyed the attention of feminist critics interested in Portia’s wound and the play’s general relegation of women to the margins of a political world dominated by intense...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...films were produced early in the 20th century, F. R. Benson ’s ( 1911 ) recording his stage production, while Frederick B. Warde acted the role in a highly spectacular American cinematic adaptation ( 1912 ) which included the arrival of a ship bringing the forces under the Earl of Richmond. No significant sound version appeared until in 1955 Laurence Olivier directed his third Shakespeare film, taking the role of Richard himself. Many of his established team worked with him, notably William Walton , whose music strikes a note of solemnity, reminding the...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...play fell from favour, though Samuel Phelps was a notable Sir John in 1847 and, at Drury Lane, in 1864 , in a production otherwise best remembered for its spectacular pictorial recreation of the battle of Shrewsbury. In the 20th century the play gradually regained some measure of its earlier popularity, though unlike Richard III it has never attracted very much interest outside the nation whose history it dramatizes, Sir John seeming as inexplicably English a joke as Mr Punch. Barry Jackson staged a full text of 1 Henry IV in 1913 , and revived...

The Two Noble Kinsmen

The Two Noble Kinsmen   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,335 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...composed with the Blackfriars theatre in mind, and as a large-cast play with a classical-cum-medieval setting which makes extensive use of music it has much in common with other plays in the King’s Company’s Jacobean repertoire, not only Pericles but Thomas Heywood ’s The Golden Age , The Silver Age , and The Brazen Age . Critical history: Although some 19th-century critics accepted the quarto’s attribution, The Two Noble Kinsmen was generally accepted into the Shakespeare canon only in the 20th century, and much critical writing about it continues...

Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,098 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...him. Romeo accosts Juliet and begs a kiss, subsequently learning her identity from the Nurse before he and his friends depart. Juliet similarly learns his. 2.0 The Chorus speaks of the mutual love of Romeo and Juliet, which they will pursue despite the dangers posed by their parents’ enmity. 2.1 Returning from the feast, Romeo doubles back, concealing himself despite the mocking summons of Benvolio and Mercutio. Hidden, he sees Juliet emerge onto her balcony: when she sighs his name, wishing he were not a Montague, he reveals himself, and in the...

The Tempest

The Tempest   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,078 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Isle depicted Caliban as a black abolitionist who sings the ‘Marseillaise’, and Charlotte Barnes hybridized the play (in The Forest Princess , 1844 ) with the story of Pocahontas. During the 20th century this view would be developed by many anti-colonial writers, particularly Octave Mannoni in East Africa , and would become a commonplace of cultural materialist and new historicist criticism from the 1970s onwards. The extent to which the play, though set in the Mediterranean, is in any sense ‘about’ the New World (and a colonial enterprise which...

Macbeth

Macbeth   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,275 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... A. C. Bradley , for example, in Shakespearean Tragedy ( 1904 ), pursued the play’s recurrent references to darkness, anticipating 20th-century discussions (by Spurgeon and others) of its imagery of blood. This increased sense of the play’s literary technique led to an impatience with earlier, realist accounts of its plot and characters, famously voiced in L. C. Knights ’s 1933 essay ‘How Many Children Had Lady Macbeth?’ The play has fascinated psychoanalytic criticism since the time of Freud himself (who felt that the play resembled a...

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,261 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...relations between thought and action in ways heavily influenced by Goethe and Schlegel . From then until the late 20th century much writing about the play was dominated by the question of Hamlet’s character, his sanity or otherwise, and why he delays. A. C. Bradley influentially found the core of the play’s power in its juxtaposition of the scope of human thought with the limitations of mortality: other scholars continued to worry at a number of more local questions which the play deliberately leaves unresolved, such as the extent of Gertrude’s guilt,...

Othello

Othello   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,092 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...marriage objectionable (and even Coleridge refused to see Othello as black, preferring to envisage him as an aristocratic Arab), most 19th-century critics found Othello convincingly noble. It was only in the 20th century, when T. S. Eliot took issue with A. C. Bradley ’s account of the play, that some began to adopt Iago’s view of Othello as a bombastic self-deceiver. This argument between pro- and anti-Othello factions has now been largely displaced by the discussion of Shakespeare ’s attitude to Moors , and whether Othello’s unquestioning assumption...

arms, Shakespeare’s coat of

arms, Shakespeare’s coat of   Reference library

Stanley Wells

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
319 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a coat of arms, conferring upon him and his descendants the status of gentleman. Two surviving drafts of a document prepared by William Dethick , Garter king-of-arms, dated 20 October grant the request. A note indicates that John had initiated a similar application 20 years before, that he was a justice of the peace in Stratford and had served as bailiff, that he had ‘lands and tenements of good wealth and substance, £500’, and that he had married ‘a daughter and heir of Arden, a gentleman of worship’. Now he was granted the right to a shield depicting a...

Robin Goodfellow

Robin Goodfellow   Reference library

Anne Button

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
286 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cumbersome machinery. In the 20th century the part has been played more often by men since Granville-Barker ’s 1914 production (in which Puck was played by Donald Calthrop). A notable exception was Angela Laurier, the French contortionist, who took the part in Robert Lepage ’s 1992 production. Male Pucks have tended to be more animalistic and malicious than their youthful, mischievous, female counterparts. Puck was dressed as a bird with claws in George Devine ’s 1954 staging (alluding at once to Ariel ’s disguise as a harpy and to Papageno in ...

Caliban

Caliban   Reference library

Anne Button

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...shared a long fascination with Caliban. In the Dryden / Davenant adaptation the low comedy of Caliban’s situation was given extra impact by the addition of a female version of him, a sister. Later generations have been more interested in the tragedy of his situation: his occasionally beautiful language and miserable situation seem to invite sympathy despite his ugly appearance and violent intentions. In the last two decades of the 20th century criticism and theatre productions have often seen Caliban as a native islander. To be precise, however, he is a...

Family Shakespeare

Family Shakespeare   Reference library

R. A. Foakes

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
275 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Shakespeare . The Revd Thomas Bowdler ( 1754–1825 ) published the 10-volume ‘Family Shakespeare’ in 1818 under his own name, completing the 20-play edition published anonymously by his sister in 1807 . His stated object was to remove from the works ‘only those words and expressions which cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family’. In practice, he (in collaboration with his unmarried sister Henrietta , whose name was kept off the title pages lest her reputation suffer) cut any passage which in his view smacked of obscenity. So, for example, he...

Fuseli, Henry

Fuseli, Henry (1741–1825)   Reference library

Catherine Tite

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
327 words
Illustration(s):
1

...works of a madman. On 20 April 1785 , the Morning Post and Daily Advertiser wrote of Fuseli’s Mandrake , ‘here is genius run mad, and however strange his witches, their daughters seem more fashionable beings’. The artist ceased to produce paintings for the Shakespeare Gallery after 1790 , considering his patron Boydell to be keenly pursuing the project for lucrative ends. Henry Fuseli’s characteristically vigorous and idiosyncratic painting of Puck (Robin Goodfellow), engraved by James Parker, 1799. Fuseli shared with his Romantic contemporaries a...

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