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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

MacColl, Hugh

MacColl, Hugh (1837–1909)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,465 words
Illustration(s):
12

...Society , vol.9 (1877–8), pp.9–20. ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements (II) ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol.9 (1877–8), pp.177–86. ‘ Symbolic[al] Reasoning (I) ’, Mind , vol.5 ns (1880), pp.45–60. ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements (V) ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol.28 (1896–7), pp.156–83. ‘ Symbolic[al] Reasoning (II) ’, Mind , vol.6 ns (1897), pp.493–510. ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements (VII) ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol.29 (1897–8), pp.98–109. Review of...

logic

logic   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
5,744 words
Illustration(s):
2

...’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol. 9 (1877–8), pp. 9–20. Marciszewski, Witold and Roman Murawski , Mechanization of Reasoning in Historical Perspective. Pozna_ Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities , vol. 43 (Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1995). Mill, John Stuart , A System of Logic , Ratiocinative and Inductive, Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation , 2 vols (1843); repr. as vols 7 and 8 of Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , ed. J.M. Robinson, Toronto...

Peace

Peace   Reference library

Willard M. Swartley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,009 words
Illustration(s):
2

...; Isa 52:7 ; 60:17 ; 66:12 , 22 ). Shalom describes God’s moral nature ( Ps 89:14 ) and occurs in parallel to justice/ mispât ( Isa 32:16–17 ; 59:8 ; cf. Ps 85:10 ; Isa 60:17 ), which often parallels righteousness /tzedekah ( Ps 36:6 ; 72:1–2 ; Prov 2:9 ; 8:20 ; Isa 5:7 ; 32:16 ; 33:5–6 ; 36:6 ; 54:13–14 ; 60:17 ). Thus, “the effect of righteousness will be peace” ( Isa 32:17 ); “righteousness and peace will kiss each other” ( Ps 85:10 [ Heb, 85:11 and LXX 84:11 ]). In the strong messianic text of Isaiah 9:6–7 “Prince of...

Rabbinic Literature

Rabbinic Literature   Reference library

John T. Townsend

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
7,663 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Decalogue in Exodus 20:2–17 with Deuteronomy 6:6–21 , one finds that the only major difference comes at the end of the commandment about the sabbath ( Exod 20:11 vs. Deut 6:15 ), to explain why one keeps the sabbath, but the difference does not affect how one keeps it. Such free treatment of aggada agreed with attitudes toward legend in the Roman world. Thus Livy ( 59 b.c.e. –17 c.e. ) explains that he includes doubtful stories about the beginnings of Rome because they support private and public morals ( History 8–10). The Mishnah. The...

Land

Land   Reference library

Karen J. Wenell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...end ( ch. 13 ) and Matthew’s Olivet discourse ( Matt 24 ). Texts such as Hebrews and—significantly—Revelation, have fueled Christian construction of a script relating to the return of Christ. Premillennial dispensationalism looks to Christ’s thousand-year reign on earth ( Rev 20:1–8 ) and sees the gathering of Jews to Palestine/Israel as a precursor to the second coming. Such views are associated with Christian Zionism, which is not well represented in scholarship as it tends to be evidenced in more popular writings, yet its impact on American (and British)...

Bourgeois, Louise

Bourgeois, Louise (1911–2010)   Reference library

Mignon Nixon

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2 (1999): 71–100. Potts, Alex . “Louise Bourgeois—Sculptural Confrontations.” Oxford Art Journal 22, no. 2 (1999): 37–53. Robbins, Daniel . “Sculpture by Louise Bourgeois.” Art International 8 (20 October 1964): 29–31. Rubin, William S. “Some Reflections Prompted by the Recent Work of Louise Bourgeois.” Studio International 8 (20 April 1969): 17–20. Storr, Robert . Louise Bourgeois Drawings . New York: Robert Miller Gallery, 1988. Strick, Jeremy . Louise Bourgeois: The Personages . Saint Louis, Mo.: Saint Louis Museum of Art, 1994. Wagner,...

African Aesthetics

African Aesthetics   Reference library

Barry Hallen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,682 words
Illustration(s):
1

... “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern . Vol. 1, edited by William Rubin , pp. 125–175. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984. Price, Sally . Primitive Art in Civilized Places . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Rorty, Richard . Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature . Corr. ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980. Rubin, Arnold . African Accumulative Sculpture: Power and Display . New York: Pace Editions, 1974. Rubin, William . “Modernist Primitivism.” In “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art:...

Anthropology

Anthropology   Reference library

Susanne Küchler

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,465 words
Illustration(s):
1

...no recognisability if they did not” (p. 20). Douglas summarizes with her excurse on the “genuine article” anthropology’s long-standing recognition that aesthetics is a function not merely of language, but of the skill to discriminate in context. The socialness of concepts of value and taste and their activation in the making of “distinctions” were demonstrated by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu ( 1984 ), who offers a concise examination of the social parameters of discrimination (see also Price, 1993 , pp. 7–22). Bourdieu’s study of the preferences...

Kant, Immanuel

Kant, Immanuel   Reference library

Paul Guyer, Salim Kemal, Kenneth R. Westphal, Theodore A. Gracyk, Günter Zöller, Mark A. Cheetham, Rudolf A. Makkreel, Jane Kneller, and Thierry de Duve

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
37,390 words
Illustration(s):
1

...it is necessarily intersubjectively valid (sections 6, 8), a claim he illustrated by an appeal to ordinary language: we can defuse the claim to intersubjective agreement inherent in the use of the linguistic form of a judgment when we state that something is merely agreeable, as when we say, “This wine is agreeable to me ,” but we do not relinquish this claim in the case of a judgment of beauty—we do not countenance a disclaimer like “This painting is beautiful to me ” (section 7). In a passage with many misleading suggestions, the interpretation...

Romanticism

Romanticism   Reference library

Richard Eldridge, David E. Cooper, and Katherine Kolb

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,171 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Eugène Delacroix. It is tempting to conclude that the only common factor among such artists is the very individualism that also separates them, that the “essential distinguishing characteristic of Romantic art” is the artist’s personal “authenticity” ( Honour, 1991 , p. 20). A better conclusion is that Romantic art is identifiable only in relation to Romantic aesthetics. Crudely, artworks are Romantic to the extent that they are informed by, or manifest tenets of, Romantic aesthetic thought—“crudely,” because not all Romantic artists were...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Mark Johnson, Josef Stern, Carl R. Hausman, David Summers, Samuel C. Wheeler III, and James Grant

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
18,932 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 60, no. 1 (2002): 49–55. British Journal of Aesthetics 49, no. 3 (2009). This issue contains a symposium on Peacocke’s account of musical expression. Budd, Malcolm . Aesthetic Essays . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. See essays 6 (on Scruton and Sibley), 7 (on Sibley), 8 (on Scruton), and 9 (on Scruton and Zangwill). Budd, Malcolm . “The Musical Expression of Emotion: Metaphorical-As Versus Imaginative-As Perception.” Estetika 49, no. 2 (2012): 131–147. A searching critical analysis of Peacocke’s account of musical expression. Davidson,...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

Indra Kagis McEwen, Bissera V. Pentcheva, James S. Ackerman, Erika Naginski, Karsten Harries, David Goldblatt, Kristina Luce, and Aron Vinegar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
25,690 words
Illustration(s):
6

... 8 (1977): 347–398. Klotz, Heinrich. L. B. Albertis “‘De re aedificatoria’ in Theorie und Praxis.” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 32 (1969): 93–103. Kruft, Hanno-Walter . A History of Architectural Theory . Translated by Ronald Taylor , Elsie Callander , and Antony Wood . London: Zwemmer 1994. Millon, Henry “The Architectural Theory of Francesco di Giorgio.” Art Bulletin 40 (1958): 257–261. Pagliara, Pier Nicola . “Vitruvio dal testo al canone.” In Memoria dell’antico nell’arte italiana , Vol. 3, edited by Salvatore Settis , pp. 7–85....

Modernism

Modernism   Reference library

Johanna Drucker, David Kolb, Leon Botstein, Deborah Jowitt, Randall Stevenson, Chika Okeke-Agulu, Aida Yuen Wong, and Sonal Khullar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
29,028 words
Illustration(s):
4

...U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Downes, Stephen . Music and Decadence in European Modernism: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Frisch, Walter . German Modernism: Music and the Arts . California Studies in 20th-Century Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Goehr, Lydia . The Imaginary Museum of Musical Works: An Essay in the Philosophy of Music . Oxford: Clarendon, 1992. Griffiths, Paul . Modern Music and After: Directions since 1945. Oxford and New York: Oxford University...

Film

Film   Reference library

Noël Carroll, Paul Messaris, Carl Plantinga, Edward Dimendberg, David Bordwell, and Stephen Prince

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
17,115 words
Illustration(s):
1

...prominence in the twentieth century. Yet, this outcome could have hardly been predicted during the 1890s, when motion pictures first appeared (the first, screened motion pictures became popular in 1895 ). Sergei Eisenstein editing the 1982 film October . Russian photographer, 20th century. private collection / archives charmet / the bridgeman art library The primary reason that the motion picture seemed to be an unlikely candidate for art status was that one of its main constituents was photography. At the turn of the century, the belief held sway that...

Chinese Aesthetics

Chinese Aesthetics   Reference library

Haun Saussy, Susan H. Bush, and Ban Wang

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,337 words
Illustration(s):
5

... Oriental Art , n.s., 12 (1966): 159–164. Gao, Jianping . it The Expressive Act in Chinese Art: From Calligraphy to Painting. Aesthetica Upsaliensa 7 (1996). Sirén, Osvald , ed. The Chinese on the Art of Painting: Translations and Comments . Reprint of 2d ed. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1963. Soper, Alexander Coburn . “The First Two Laws of Hsieh Ho.” Far Eastern Quarterly 8 (1949): 412–423. Soper, Alexander Coburn , ed. Kuo Jo-hsü’s Experiences in Painting (T’u-hua chien-wen chih): An Eleventh Century History of Painting . Washington...

Politics

Politics   Reference library

Thijs Lijster, Steven C. Dubin, Mark Antliff, and James Miller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
19,455 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and subversive, or propagandistic and affirmative, works of art can also raise political awareness by drawing our attention to the human suffering caused by certain political systems or conflicts. Some examples are Goya’s series of prints titled The Disasters of War ( 1810–20 ), Arnold Schoenberg’s musical piece A Survivor from Warsaw ( 1947 ), or the novel The Gulag Archipelago ( 1958–68 ) by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. Popular music, most notably folk and blues, also has a long tradition of giving voice to social suffering and political protest. With...

art and visual abstraction

art and visual abstraction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
6

...is abstracted into linear contours similar to b. Fig. 2. Contoured representations of the human body from the 13th and the 20th centuries. The examples show opposite contrasts: black on white ( a ) and white on black ( b ). a. Medieval drawing of a sitting man in Villard d'Honnecourt's sketch-book ( c. 1230). It is limited mainly to the body contour with a few added lines indicating muscles and ribs. Pen on parchment. Left side, 14 × 7 cm of a 14 × 22 cm page. b. Modern contoured print by Matisse in white lines on black background (1944). It shows the...

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
8,888 words
Illustration(s):
16

...IP, inositol triphosphate second messenger; PDE, phosphodiesterase, which inactivates cyclic GMP. Adapted from Fig 2 in Holscher (1997). Adapted from fig. 2 in C. Holscher, ‘Nitric oxide, the enigmatic neuronal messenger: its role in synaptic plasticity’. Trends in Neuroscience 20(7) (1995). The second observation, in the 1980s and 1990s, which was to throw light on the mechanism of retrograde synaptic action, and the mechanism of LTP, was the finding that at least two gases are working as neurotransmitters, namely nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. The latter...

brain development

brain development   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,208 words
Illustration(s):
5

...for learning meanings from other people 2. What brain science can and cannot explain 3. Discovery of how neurons link up to make mental activity 4. Reflexes, motives, and consciousness: what develops? 5. The embryo brain (conception to 8 weeks) 6. The fetal brain (8 to 40 weeks) 7. The newborn infant's brain 8. Age-related changes in functions of cortex in different lobes of the hemispheres 9. How language and other meanings fit in: a brain with personality and for all cultures 1. The human brain: adapted for learning meanings from other people...

Bourgeois, Louise

Bourgeois, Louise (b. 1911)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,035 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Introduction to Louise Bourgeois . Tiger's Eye 1.7 (15 March 1949): 89–92. Bloch, Susi . An Interview with Louise Bourgeois . Art Journal 35.4 (Summer 1976): 370–373. Cole, Ian , ed. Louise Bourgeois . Museum of Modern Art Papers, vol. I. Oxford, 1996. de Zegher, M. Catherine . Introduction: Inside the Visible. In Inside the Visible:An Elliptical Traverse of 20th Century Art in, of, and from the Feminine , pp. 19–41. Cambridge, Mass., 1996. Elsen, Albert E. Notes on the Partial Figure . Artforum 8 (November 1969): 58–63. Gibson, Ann . Louise...

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