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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Capernaum

Capernaum   Reference library

Stefano De Luca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...where the crowd assembles and he meets with, heals, teaches, and debates them and privately instructs his disciples ( Mark 1:29–39 , 2:1–12 , 3:20–35 , 4:10–11 , 7:17–23 [cf. Matt 15:1–20 ], 9:33–37 ; Matt 8:14–17 , 9:1–18 , 12:46–50 , 13:36–43 , 18:1–5 ; Luke 4:38–43 , 5:17–26 , 8:9–10 , 8:19–21 , 9:46–48 ). Even if one recognizes an underdeveloped ecclesiological dimension in Mark, Mark 3:20–35 documents elements typical of a new core of believers, a new family of Jesus in the house of Simon and Andrew—set in opposition to those...

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Mayer I. Gruber

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,502 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as well, in Leviticus 19:3 ; but here mother is placed before father. Disrespect for aging parents is a disaster that leads to the disintegration of society ( Micah 7:1–7 ). Inasmuch as both parents are inculcated in the cultural legacy of Israel, they are obligated to inculcate their children (see Deut 6:7 , 11:19 ), who receive instruction from both parents ( Prov 1:8 , 6:20 , 23:22–25 ). Deuteronomy 21:18–21 shows that mothers and fathers are together responsible for the proper upbringing of their children as both parents present a...

Mount Ebal

Mount Ebal   Reference library

Adam Zertal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,269 words
Illustration(s):
1

...m) lower than the upper face of the altar. The smaller, secondary ramp, which was connected to the main one, led to it. Two stone-paved courtyards constructed in front of the main building, measuring approximately 26.2 by 19.7 ft (8 by 6 m) each, contained several stone boxes. In all, some 100 or more little stone boxes, each ca. 20 by 20 inches (50 by 50 cm), were found scattered in the courtyards and around the altar. They were built in layers that indicate several stages of use. Different pots, above all jugs, were found inside most of them. The pots had...

Ashdod

Ashdod   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,957 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Tel Ashdod is located in the industrial zone south of the modern city of Ashdod (3.7 miles [6 km] from the city), 2.8 miles (4.5 km) east of the shoreline, near one of the Nahal Lachish tributaries. Its ancient port was probably located in the nearby Tel Mor or Ashdod Yam. The identification of the tell as Ashdod is quite certain since the Arab village Isdud retained the name. The tell of Ashdod is about 84 to 89 acres (34 to 36 ha) in size, with an upper tell of 20 acres (8 ha); its elevation is 171 ft (52 m) above sea level, 49 ft (15 m) above its...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Jürgen Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,329 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by Herod to plan this series of small palaces on the summit of Masada” (Netzer, 2006 , p. 27). Especially luxurious was the core of the Western Palace, with stuccoed guardrooms, a large courtyard, and opposite the entrance a vestibule (23 by 22 ft [7 by 6.7 m]) leading to a large reception hall (28.5 by 19.7 ft [8.7 by 6.0 m]). A “Greco–Jewish” bath complex with a mikvah and service rooms also belong to the mansion. Here, too, the walls were stuccoed with large, white panels imitating marble slabs. Although it remains unclear who exactly lived in these...

Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Two carefully hewn limestone incense altars were found lying on their sides on the middle stair of stratum X, below the floor of stratum IX of the main hall. The altars differ in size: the base of the smaller is 8.7 by 7.9 inches (22 by 20 cm) and it is 15.7 inches (40 cm) high, while the larger is 12.2 by 11.4 inches (31 by 29 cm) at base and 20 inches (51 cm) high. Both altars had a top part separated from the base by a groove. A shallow depression was cut in the top surface, with remnants of organic material. Unlike many similar altars, those at Arad had...

Herodium

Herodium   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,362 words
Illustration(s):
2

...fragments an 82 ft (25 m) high, monumental pillar with four segments was reconstructed: a podium with a square, 9.8 ft (3 m) vaulted room inside with a small opening from the east (the “hidden room”), then a 28 ft (8.5 m) square middle story of 19.7 ft (6 m) height and another square vault inside (“vaulted room”) of 14.8 ft (4.5 m), and finally a tholos (beehive-shaped structure) of 24.3 ft (7.4 m) diameter and 23.6 ft (7.2 m) height decorated with 18 columns sporting Ionic capitals and Attic bases and surrounding a third domed “upper room.”...

Cooking

Cooking   Reference library

Cynthia Shafer-Elliott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,370 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of their Middle Bronze–Age predecessors but with some variations in size and an increasingly carinated shape. During the Late Bronze Age II, cooking pots added a folded-over, everted rim with a triangular flange. The diameter of the mouth averaged 9.8 to 15.7 in (25–40 cm) and the height 5.9 to 7.8 in (15–20 cm). Its open mouth, wide shape, and special cooking ware allowed the pot to be used for several types of cooking, including steaming, frying, simmering, and boiling. It served as well for cooking larger food items like meat and for serving larger groups...

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Annette Weissenrieder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,094 words
Illustration(s):
1

...78; Aulus Gellius, Noct. att. 6.1.2­–4; Cicero, Div. 1.36; Pliny, Nat. 7.122). A personal genius is never mentioned in these sources; instead of pinecones and eggs, wine, flowers, and olibanum (frankincense) are offered. Finally, snakes can appear as a manifestation of different gods. Realistic representations and allegories are shown as well as images of gods. Sometimes vicomagistri of the Compitalia cult appear between lares . Realistic scenes show processions; here, the divine can hardly be distinguished from the realistic (Pompeii IX.7.1,...

Shiloh

Shiloh   Reference library

Hayah Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,582 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of fieldstones laid directly on bedrock, was between 9.8 and 18 ft (3 and 5.5 m) thick and in Area D was preserved to a height of 21.9 ft (6.7 m). The glacis, which abutted the base of the wall, was 82 ft (25 m) wide at its lower part and 20.7 ft (6.3 m) wide next to the wall. At the center of the glacis, a wall was built to further stabilize it. Large boulders were laid at the edge of the glacis as an additional support measure. In Area F, a series of rooms whose walls were preserved to a height of 7.5 ft (2.3 m) was found adjacent to the wall. This...

Dan

Dan   Reference library

David Ilan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,469 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the basins, the remains of meat sacrifices, dice ( urim and thumim ?); and many other artifacts all resonate in passages that refer to rituals and ritual paraphernalia in, for example, 1 Kings ( 6–7 ), Exodus ( 20:25 , 30:78 ), Amos ( 3:14 , 6:4–7 ), Isaiah ( 1:10–17 ), Jeremiah ( 17:26 ), Ezekiel ( 43 ), Deuteronomy ( 33:8 ), Leviticus ( 1–7 ), and Numbers ( 28 ). The Iron-Age destructions at Tel Dan are not always easy to pin down in terms of biblical history. For example, a literal reading of Judges 18 would suggest that the Late...

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in 9 or 8 b.c.e. in connection with Herod’s anniversary as king (Josephus, Ant. 15.423). But the project was so huge that much work dragged on until 28 c.e. ( John 2:20 ), and it was not before 64 c.e. that the Roman governor Albinus declared the Temple finished and ordered construction to stop, creating a major social crisis (Josephus, Ant. 20.219). Herod Agrippa II (r. 48–ca. 93 c.e. ) had to repair and embellish the streets of Jerusalem to keep 18,000 workers active who were previously employed at the Temple (Josephus, Ant. 20.220–221)....

Ekron

Ekron   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,508 words
Illustration(s):
1

...about 21.7 miles (35 km) southwest of Jerusalem and 2.8 miles (4.5 km) east of Kibbutz Revadim, close to the south bank of Nahal Timna. The site controls several local routes connecting the coast with the inlands and points northward. Tel Miqne/Ekron is just to the west of the border between the inner Coastal Plain and the Shephelah, part of a natural border zone between Judah and Philistia. It is ca. 49.4 acres (20 ha, 200 dunams) in size, of which four constitute the upper city (the top of the tell is 354.3 ft [108 m] above sea level but only 23 ft [7 m] above...

Jerusalem, Bronze and Iron Age

Jerusalem, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Philip Andrew Johnston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,914 words
Illustration(s):
4

...outer walls of the Large Stone Structure. The Large Stone Structure is a partially preserved monumental structure (possibly a palace or a fort). The most impressive of its walls—Wall 20, which is bonded to the Stepped Stone Structure—was exposed for a length of 12.1 ft (3.7 m), is built of rather large fieldstones, and is preserved to a width of 9.8 ft (3 m) and a height of 8.2 ft (2.5 m). The plan of the Large Stone Structure remains unclear, and the reconstruction proposed by E. Mazar, a large palace with small rooms surrounding an inner court, is largely...

Literacy, Iron Age

Literacy, Iron Age   Reference library

Alice Mandell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,213 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to reading and writing as media of communication ( 1 Kgs 21:8–9 ; 2 Kgs 5:5–7 , 10:1 , 10:6–7 ; for record keeping [ Num 33:2 , Josh 18:8–9 , Judg 8:14 ], including lists and genealogies [ Gen 5:1 ] and royal annals [ 1 Kgs 11:41 , 15:23 ; 2 Kgs 20:20 ]), as well as references to royal scribes ( 2 Sam 8:17 , 20:25 ; 1 Kgs 4:3 ; 2 Kgs 12:10 ; Isa 36:3 ), underscore their growing importance. Moreover, references to writing in Deuteronomy ( 4:13 , 6:9 , 27:3 , 28:58 , 29:20–21 , 30:10 , 31:19 , 31:24 ), in Josiah’s reforms ( 2 Kgs ...

Rehob

Rehob   Reference library

Amihai Mazar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,191 words
Illustration(s):
1

...extending over 24.7 acres (10 ha). The mound is located in a colluvial valley, about 3.7 miles (6 km) west of the Jordan River, 1.9 miles (3 km) east of the Gilboa ridge, and 3.1 miles (5 km) south of Tel Beth-Shean. The site enjoys ideal geographic conditions: it is located in a low topography, close to fertile lands and to main roads that cross the Jordan Valley from north to south and from west to east. The site comprises an upper mound and a lower mound. The upper mound rises 65.6 ft (20 m) and the lower mound about 26.2 ft (8 m) above the surrounding...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,047 words
Illustration(s):
2

...no synagogue building but only fragments of synagogue inscriptions until 1993 , when land was being cleared for a parking area north of the summit. A large (68.2 by 225.3 ft [20.8 by 7.7 m]) rectangular synagogue, probably built in the sixth century c.e. , was discovered there near a north–south street west of and parallel to the cardo . Its main room is surprisingly narrow (52.8 ft [16.1 m] long and only 21.3 ft [6.5 m] wide) and has an unusual floor plan: unlike most ancient synagogues, it has only one row of columns, dividing the internal space into...

Khirbet Qeiyafa

Khirbet Qeiyafa   Reference library

Yosef Garfinkel, Saar Ganor, and Michael Hasel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,130 words
Illustration(s):
1

...seven stages, some contemporaneous with one another. Construction preparation and building materials. The builders removed sediments and exposed bedrock in a 65.6 ft (20 m) circular belt around the site. Later, the city wall and a row of houses were constructed along this area. The outer city wall was constructed of very large stones, sometimes 6.6 to 9.8 ft (2–3 m) long and 4.4 to 8.8 tons (4–8 metric tons) in weight founded directly on bedrock. Where did these large stones come from? The simplest solution would have been to quarry them from the immediate...

Feasting, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Feasting, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Dennis E. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,715 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with permanent masonry couches in a triclinium arrangement. Another example is the second-century c.e. clubhouse of the Iobacchoi , an association of Dionysus worshippers in Athens. This clubhouse contains a large room, similar in form to the broad-room style, ca. 65.6 ft (20 m) by 32.8 ft (10 m) in size. The accompanying inscription identifies this room as a hestiatorion , or dining hall. Jewish Dining. The Jewish sectarians at Qumran on the Dead Sea (first century b.c.e. to 68 c.e. ) centered much of their religious life around ritualized communal...

Tel Kedesh

Tel Kedesh   Reference library

Andrea M. Berlin and Sharon C. Herbert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,536 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of King Hiram of Tyre, a contemporary of Kings David and Solomon. (1) In 1 Kings 9:10–14 Solomon gives to Hiram 20 cities in the Galilee, but in the parallel passage of 2 Chronicles 8:2 Solomon rebuilds the cities that Huram (as the Chronicler calls him) had given to him. (2) In 1 Kings 5:9–11 Hiram sends lumber and workers for the temple, in return for which Solomon pays a yearly tribute of 20,000 cors of wheat and 20,000 cors of oil, an arrangement reflecting the Tyrian monarch’s greater standing; in 2 Chronicles 2:3–16 , payment is...

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