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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

What is Theory?

What is Theory?   Reference library

Patrick Thaddeus Jackson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,099 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Global Security Matrix. At www.watsoninstitute.org/globalsecuritymatrix/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Features efforts by IR theorists to identify and conceptualize security threats; draws on a diverse set of theoretical perspectives. Theory Talks. At www.theory-talks.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. An archive of interviews and speeches by prominent IR theorists. Covers a variety of approaches. The IR Theory Website. At www.irtheory.com/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Wiki-like collection of thumbnail definitions of different IR theories. Focused mainly...

Political Demography

Political Demography   Reference library

Tadeusz Kugler and Jacek Kugler

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,465 words
Illustration(s):
13

...generally opposes restrictions on services already provided while demanding increased investments in their health and well-being. The total population of the country is projected to decline by nearly 20 million people over the next 40 years, creating a situation in which the most pressing domestic political question is one of civic engineering. What to do with 20 million people worth of houses, schools, businesses, and all the other infrastructure of a developed society? Life Expectancy and the Outcomes of Success The average life span of members of a society...

Women National Leaders

Women National Leaders   Reference library

Francine D’Amico

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,448 words
Illustration(s):
1

...9%. The IPU data also indicate that women are 33% or more of national legislators in just 17 countries. Women are 25% or more of national legislators in 41 countries. Women comprise between 20 and 25% of national legislators in 24 additional countries, such that in a total of 65 of 192 independent countries, or just one third of UN member states, women are at least 20% of the top law makers. In the two highest-ranked countries of Rwanda and Sweden, women are nearly half of national legislators at 56.3% and 47.3%, respectively; next highest in rank order are...

The Millennium Development Goals and the Politics of Global Poverty

The Millennium Development Goals and the Politics of Global Poverty   Reference library

Paul Nelson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,359 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Breaking Ground: Development Aid for Land Reform . London: Overseas Development Institute. Africa Research Institute. (2007) Making Fertiliser Subsidies Work in Malawi. Briefing Note 0703. December. At www.africaresearchinstitute.org/pdfs/Making%20fertiliser%20subsidies%20work%20in%20Malawi%20-%20Briefing%20Note-c61bad66ae.pdf , accessed August 29, 2009. Ahluwalia, M. (1976) Inequality, Poverty and Development. Journal of Development Economics 3, 307–42. Alston, P. (2005) Ships Passing in the Night: The Current State of the Human Rights and Development...

Issues in Data Collection

Issues in Data Collection   Reference library

Kristian Skrede Gleditsch and Kyle Clark Beardsley

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,367 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Look at Their Distribution over Time, 1816–1997. International Studies Quarterly 47 (1), 49–70. Shirkey, Z.C. , and Weisiger, A. (2007) An Annotated Bibliography for the Correlates of War Interstate Wars Database. At www.correlatesofwar.org/cow2%20data/WarData/InterState/Shirkey%20&%20Weisiger%20War%20Bibliography.pdf , accessed Apr. 22, 2009. Singer, J.D. , and Small, M. (1972) The Wages of War, 1816–1965: A Statistical Handbook . New York: John Wiley. Singer, J.D. , Bremer, S. , and Stuckey, J. (1972) Capability Distribution, Uncertainty, and...

Migration and Development

Migration and Development   Reference library

Philip Martin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,834 words
Illustration(s):
1

... More Developed EAP 604,521 613,388 611,392 602,977 Less Developed EAP 2,445,899 2,665,986 2,869,878 3,048,307 Change 1980–90 1990–2000 2000–10 2010–20 World EAP 25% 21% 17% 17% More Developed EAP 9% 5% 4% 5% Less Developed EAP 31% 26% 21% 20% Source : ILO Laborsta, http:/laborsta.ilo.org (n.d.). Improving conditions so that workers in a globalizing world elect to remain in what are now low-income countries is a major challenge. In developing...

International Economic Institutions and Global Justice

International Economic Institutions and Global Justice   Reference library

Pamela Blackmon

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,195 words
Illustration(s):
1

...some of the responsibility for the increases in poverty. Indeed, articles addressing some of the shortcomings of the IMF and World Bank policies designed for the countries of central and eastern Europe were the focus of an entire issue in the Journal of Comparative Economics 20, 1995 ( Brada et al. 1995 ). The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union also resulted in a shift in the early 1990s from the “high politics” of military and security to the “low politics” of economics and human rights issues. McCorquodale and Fairbrother (...

The Spatial Analysis of War

The Spatial Analysis of War   Reference library

Clionadh Raleigh, Frank D.W. Witmer, and John O’Loughlin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,825 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Geograph y 25 (3), 315–35. Burt, J.E. , Barber, G.M. , and Rigby, D.L. (2009) Elementary Statistics for Geographers . New York: Guilford Press. Casetti, E. (1997) The Expansion Method, Mathematical Modeling, and Spatial Econometrics. International Regional Science Review 20 (1–2), 9–33. Clapham, C. (1986) Third World Politics . London: Croom Helm. Clark, J.F. (2002) Introduction: Causes and Consequences of the Congo War. In J.F. Clark (ed.) The African States in the Congo War . New York: Palgrave, pp. 1–12. Cliff, A.D. , and Ord, J.K. (1973)...

Trust and International Organization

Trust and International Organization   Reference library

Kendall Stiles

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
15,846 words
Illustration(s):
1

...whom nothing is ever good enough… ( Peppers and Rogers 2012 :20). This might be yet another reason for high levels of Western European inter-state cooperation compared to the Horn of Africa. This also correlates with Kydd's proposition that because democratic societies are more transparent and decisions about keeping promises are founded on popular will, they communicate a willingness to cooperate to outside actors, which in turn contributes to peaceful relations with neighbors ( Kydd 2005 :20). Peaceful communities generate peaceful people who in turn urge...

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War   Reference library

Brandon C. Prins

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

... International Studies Review 20 (4), 581–620. Starr, H. , and Thomas, G.D. (2005) The Nature of Borders and International Conflict. International Studies Quarterly 49 (1), 123–39. Stoessinger, J. (1974) Why Nations Go to War . New York: Random House. Tillema, H.K. (1991) International Conflict since 1945: A Bibliographic Handbook of Wars and Military Interventions . Boulder: Westview. Tillema, H.K. (1994) Cold War Alliance and Overt Military Intervention, 1945–1991. International Interactions 20 (3), 249–78. Tillema, H.K. (1996) Overt...

Neoclassical Realism

Neoclassical Realism   Reference library

Caron E. Gentry

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,146 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 1985 ). It updates classical realism, however, by providing clearly-stated, testable hypotheses, aspiring to the positivistic scientific rigor that structural realism introduced to realism and specifying the causal primacy of the anarchic international system (cf. James 2002 :14–20). It also avoids classical realism's emphasis on human nature, passions, and the quest for unlimited power, which is not necessary to explain a broad range of international phenomena and foreign policy choices, nor is it conducive to a rigorous scientific theory of international...

Transnational Corporations and the Global Environment

Transnational Corporations and the Global Environment   Reference library

Matthias Finger and David Svarin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,222 words
Illustration(s):
1

...most common in pollution-intensive industries, such as pharmaceuticals, mining, chemicals, transports, motor vehicles, petroleum and metals, and less widespread in the financial sector ( 2001 :20). The authors conclude that “these results clearly hint at a relationship between the direct environmental impact of a sector and the degree of environmental reporting” ( 2001 :20). These findings are confirmed by a study by Jose and Lee analyzing the environmental reporting of the 200 biggest TNCs. They find that, generally speaking, environmental reporting is most...

Highly Skilled Migration

Highly Skilled Migration   Reference library

Brad K. Blitz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,429 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Linková, M. , and Henderson, L. (eds.) (2003) Nurturing or Frustrating Ambition? The Position of Young Researchers in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings on the Enwise workshop on young scientists. Prague, April. At www.cec-wys.org/prilohy/aeb76b97/Nurturing%20or%20frustrating%20ambition.pdf?PHPSESSID=5b7dc3c8c94d33560b64fe0c8b294c55 , accessed Aug. 10, 2008. Lowell, B.L. (2002) Some Developmental Effects of the International Migration of Highly Skilled Persons , International Migration Papers 46. Geneva: International Labor Organization. Lowell...

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Jeffrey W. Taliaferro

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,750 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the certainty effect . Players will pay more to reduce the number of bullets in the gun from 1 to 0 than from 4 to 3. Insurance buying behavior provides a second example. People will tend to pay far more to reduce the risk of catastrophic loss from 10 percent to zero than from 20 percent to 10 percent, even though the change in expected-utility is the same. Expected-utility theories have difficulty in explaining why individuals would buy insurance against potentially catastrophic losses – such as floods or earthquakes – that have a low probability of...

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption   Reference library

Frank G. Madsen

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,475 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Treasury ( 2006 :iv) estimates that nearly 60 percent of all banknotes in circulation, or about $450 billion of the $760 billion in circulation as of December 2005 , circulate abroad. Money Laundering The investigation and interdiction of money laundering have, over the last 20 years, become the foci of much national and international law enforcement. A number of scholars, including the present author, nevertheless contend that this approach is conceptually ill-founded, unacceptably intrusive, and, ultimately, inefficient. It also displaces the criminal...

Institutional Actors in Foreign Policy Analysis

Institutional Actors in Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Ralph Carter and James M. Scott

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,423 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., and Cowhey, P. (1997) Ballotbox Diplomacy: The War Powers Resolution and the Use of Force. International Studies Quarterly 41, 505–28. Avery, W.P. , and Forsythe, D.P. (1979) Human Rights, National Security, and the U.S. Senate. International Studies Quarterly 23, 303–20. Bernstein, R.A. , and Anthony, W.W. (1974) The ABM Issue in the Senate, 1968–1970: The Importance of Ideology. American Political Science Review 68, 1198–1206. Blondel, J. (2006) About Institutions, Mainly, but not Exclusively, Political. In R.A. Rhodes , S.A. Binder , and...

International Organizations and Respect for International Law

International Organizations and Respect for International Law   Reference library

Kendall W. Stiles

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,929 words
Illustration(s):
3

...speak a particular language, it was more important that one single language be chosen once and for all. Another scenario involves “collective decision dilemmas plagued by social intransitivities where delegation is a means of overcoming policy differences” (Hawkins et al. 2006:20). This is different from hiding behind an agent who is tasked to give bad news (the International Monetary Fund’s [ IMF ] stabilization plans, say), since in those cases the agents are merely mouthpieces for nervous governments. Rather, it refers to a method for solving...

Regional Governance and Environmental Problems

Regional Governance and Environmental Problems   Reference library

Jörg Balsiger and Stacy D. VanDeveer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,406 words
Illustration(s):
1

...E. , and Jacobson, H. (eds.) (1999a) Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Brown Weiss, E. , and Jacobson, H. (1999b) Getting Countries to Comply with International Agreements. Environment 41, 16–20, 37–45. Brooks, L.A. , and VanDeveer, S.D. (eds.) (1997) Saving the Seas: Values, Science and International Governance . College Park, MD: Maryland Sea Grant College. Cameron, M.A. , and Tomlin, B.W. (2000) The Making of NAFTA: How the Deal was Done . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University...

Terrorism and Foreign Policy

Terrorism and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Amanda Skuldt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,414 words
Illustration(s):
1

...terrorism on the institution of sovereignty and the state’s perceptions of it? Does it undermine the state, or ultimately serve to reinforce its basic structure? Does al Qaeda threaten the international system (Cronin 2002/03) or will we find, as Martha Crenshaw argued 20 years earlier, that the “international result of terrorism is apparently a reinforcement of the community of states” ( 1983 :34). What effect should the answer to these questions have on a state’s foreign policy? Overall, globalization and terrorism remains a fruitful avenue of research...

Global Commodity Chains and Global Value Chains

Global Commodity Chains and Global Value Chains   Reference library

Joonkoo Lee

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,358 words
Illustration(s):
1

...corporate codes of conduct are increasingly dependent on sector-wide collective bodies and third-party auditors, a shift from direct monitoring to indirect rule setting and enforcement ( Hughes 2001 ). Concerning the governance implication of this shift, Ponte and Gibbon ( 2005 :20) suggest that market-based transactions may not lead to a real “hand-off” as long as they are re-regulated by the industry-wide standards and regulations driven by lead firms. Therefore, although power asymmetry between buyers and suppliers may be low in market-based governance at...

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