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Public Opinion and Religion: Gay Rights in the United States Reference library
Darren E. Sherkat
...bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) rights, though sometimes supporting the extension of rights and protections. The very idea of civil rights for GLBT persons is quite new, and state-sponsored discrimination against GLBT persons was ubiquitous in modern polities until the late 20th century . As a consequence, until quite recently religious opponents of civil rights for GLBT persons have found themselves on an advantaged political playing field, with numerous secular supporters and few secular or religious opponents. In most nations of the world this remains...
Electoral Choice and Religion: Turkey Reference library
...census does not identify the Alevi population ( Çarkoğlu & Bilgili, 2015 ; Shankland, 2010 ). Alevis have no distinctive linguistic or physical characteristics from the Sunnis. Since the immigration from rural Anatolia to metropolitan cities began in the second half of the 20th century , the density of Alevi population has diminished in the rural settings. From an empirical perspective, although it is possible to identify Alevi villages in a rural setting, it is a formidable challenge to predict Alevi population settlements in urban and metropolitan...
Religious Regulation in Brazil Reference library
Claudia Cerqueira and Guadalupe Tuñón
...Regulation in Brazil Introduction For most of the 20th century , roughly 90% of Latin America’s population was Catholic. Since the year 2000 , however, the Catholic Church’s presence in the region has changed dramatically. Today, only 69% of Latin American adults identify as Catholic ( Pew Research Center, 2014 ). In nearly every country, the Catholic Church has experienced a net loss in membership. Brazil, a historically Catholic majority country with pockets of syncretic Afro-Brazilian religions, is no exception; although it still has the largest...
Islam and Islamic Studies in Scandinavia Reference library
Susanne Olsson and Simon Sorgenfrei
...Table 1. Asylum Applications Filed in Scandinavian Countries by Top Countries of Origin, 2015 Country of Asylum Total Asylum Applications Top Country of Origin Second Country of Origin Third Country of Origin Sweden 162,877 Syria (51,338) Afghanistan (41,564) Iraq (20,857) Finland 32,476 Iraq (20,485) Afghanistan (5,214) Somalia (1,981) Norway 31,145 Syria (10,536) Afghanistan (6,987) Iraq (2,991) Denmark 7,162 Syria (3,515) Eritrea (1,276) Stateless (702) Note : Figures for Denmark include the first three quarters of 2015. Sources : Finnish Immigration...
Hinduism: India, Nepal, and Beyond Reference library
Rina Verma Williams and Sayam Moktan
...and India, where Hindus comprise 81.3% and 79.8% of the population, respectively. In Mauritius, a small island nation off the southwestern coast of Africa, Hindus comprise a plurality but just short of a majority of the population at 48.5%. Countries where Hindus comprise between 20% and 30% of the population include Fiji, Bhutan, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, and Suriname; these are largely legacy populations of migration out of South Asia under British colonial rule. Countries where Hindus are between 10% and 15% of the population include Qatar, Sri Lanka,...
Electoral Choice and Religion: United States Reference library
Jeremiah J. Castle
...Kennedy campaign’s efforts to confront anti-Catholic sentiments highlight the continuing importance of religious tradition in structuring the divide between the parties in the mid- 20th century . Religion and the Parties: The New Religion Gap Even while Kennedy was defending his faith on the campaign trail, there were signs that the ethnoreligious model was weakening. During the 20th century , secularization led to a declining relationship between religious identities and political behavior in most advanced industrial democracies ( Norris & Inglehart, 2004 )....
Political Contempt and Religion Reference library
Nathan C. Walker
.... International Refugee Assistance Project IRAP v. Trump , 883 F.3d 233 (4th Cir., 2018), Brief Amici Curiae of IRAP, et al. filed, March 30, 2018 (No. 17-965). Retrieved from https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-965/41751/20180330134436268_IRAP%20Hawaii%20Amicus%20_FINAL.pdf . IPEDS. (2017) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Iyengar, S. , & Krupenkin M. (2018). The strengthening of partisan affect . Political Psychology , 39 , 201–218. Jackson, J. (2018, June 18)...
Religious Nationalism and Religious Influence Reference library
...both theoretical and empirical reasons for skepticism regarding the fluidity of these substitutions. As Genevieve Zubrzycki ( 2006 ) has pointed out, there is no clear evidence of the modern functional equivalence between nation and religion or the needs each might fulfill (p. 20). More directly, both coexist empirically, with little evidence of the substitution effect, in countries as varied as Poland, India, and the Philippines. Even where secularism reigns triumphant, as in France, “church or churches remain important institutions and actors in the...
Secularism and Politics Reference library
Jeremiah J. Castle and Patrick L. Schoettmer
...church and state is growing closer, and private religiosity is on the rise. Many of the majority-Islamic nations in the Middle East are seeing yet a third dynamic, in which the recent emergence of high-profile fundamentalist sects represents a backlash to the secularization of the 20th century . Together, these and other cases highlight the need to improve our understanding of the relationship between secularism and politics. In order to better understand this relationship, in this article we survey the literature on secularism in four regions: western Europe,...
On the Paradox of State Religion and Religious Freedom Reference library
...Figure 4. Constitutional approaches to religion, over time. Note : Sample/Universe: n = 779 of 1,039 known constitutional systems, 1830–2016. Source : Comparative Constitutions Project. Meanwhile, the dogmatic class seems to have dropped precipitously in the early 20th century . Today only 10 constitutions have an official religion without an expressed freedom of religion. This class includes Libya ( 1969 ), Iran ( 1979 ), and Saudi Arabia ( 1991 ). 4 This decline stands in contrast to a larger and more stable group of cases that continue to...
Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics Reference library
Paul A. Djupe and Amy Erica Smith
...the fifth item read, “Five: a Jewish candidate running for vice president” (p. 284). 3 In list experiments, the difference in the number of items reported in the two groups is the key finding of the research; for instance, if respondents in the control condition report on average 2.0 items and respondents in the treatment report on average 2.4 items, researchers deduce that 40 percent of respondents in the treatment chose the experimental item. Researchers can further analyze the differences between treatment and control in varying subpopulations—for instance,...
Social Justice, Anti-Poverty Work, and Religion Reference library
Lara Rusch, R. Khari Brown, Ronald E. Brown, and Francine Banner
...requiring economic uplift of the poor, had begun fragmenting in the 1920s. Evangelicals increasingly turned to “a theology of personal responsibility and redemption” and the religious sanction of laissez-faire capitalism ( Wilson, 2009 , pp. 9–10). Since the second half of the 20th century , mass public opinion research has documented a persistent negative association between evangelical faith and support for social welfare programs in the United States ( Barker & Carman, 2000 ). However, the sources of this ongoing association are not entirely clear....
Democratic Norms and Religion Reference library
Gizem Arikan and Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom
...Religious institutions and political participation in America. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion , 40 (2), 303–314. Doherty, D. , & Mecellem, J. (2012, April). Procedural and substantive conceptions of democracy in four Arab populations . Paper presented at the 20th Annual Illinois State University Conference for Students of Political Science, Normal, IL. Easton . (1965). A systems analysis of political life . New York, NY: Wiley. Easton, D. (1975). A re-assessment of the concept of political support. British Journal of Political Science...
Civil War and Religion: An Overview Reference library
..., 14 (4), 556–577. Juergensmeyer, M. (1993). The new Cold War? Religious nationalism confronts the secular state . Berkeley: University of California Press. Juergensmeyer, M. (1996). The worldwide rise of religious nationalism. Journal of International Affairs , 50 (1), 1–20. Juergensmeyer, M. (2008). Global rebellion: Religious challenges to the secular state, from Christian militias to al Qaeda . Berkeley: University of California Press. Juergensmeyer, M. (2017). How cosmic wars end. Numen: The International Review of the History of Religion ,...