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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Food Pyramids

Food Pyramids   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...They focus on “consuming fewer calories, making informed food choices, and being physically active” to “attain and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of chronic disease, and promote overall health.” The Guidelines note that “Currently, Americans consume less than 20 percent of the recommended intake for whole grains, less than 60 percent for vegetables, less than 50 percent for fruits, and less than 60 percent for milk and milk products. Inadequate intakes of nutrient-dense foods from these basic food groups place individuals at risk for lower...

Fondue Pot

Fondue Pot   Reference library

Sylvia Lovegren

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...gold and avocado green and finally to wildly patterned pots by artists such as Peter Max. In the 1970s fondue pots were a popular wedding gift. Out of fashion for twenty years, fondue and its pots made a comeback in the late 1990s. Sales of Le Creuset brand cast-iron pots surged 20 percent, Williams-Sonoma reintroduced fondue pots in its holiday catalog, and West Bend added an extra large Entertainer pot to its line. [ See also Cheese ; Chocolate ; Pots and Pans .] bibliography Lovegren, Sylvia . Fashionable Food . New York: Macmillan, 1995. Rhule, Patty ....

Chickpeas

Chickpeas   Reference library

Josephine Bacon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...chickpeas are added to stews, such as ropas viejas and cocido , and they are used similarly in Spain, India, and France. Common uses in the United States are in soups, vegetable combinations, or as a component of salads. The chickpea is highly nutritious—containing about 20 percent protein, 5 percent fat, and 55 percent carbohydrate, as well as malic and oxalic acid—and it has become a favorite among health-conscious Americans. [ See also Beans ; Hummus ; Middle Eastern Influences on American Food ; Peas ; Tahini .] Bibliography Grains, Pasta, and...

Sausage

Sausage   Reference library

Kantha Shelke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...soy sausages. Sausages are usually bought already prepared. Although specialty sausages, such as andouille, blood sausage, bockbier sausage, bratwurst, chorizo, head cheese, kielbasa, knockwurst, and mortadella, are available in the United States, Americans have consumed more than 20 billion hot dogs in recent years. Alternating between decadent and healthful foods, Americans consume sausages as part of meals and as snacks and have even created a similar product, called “Snausages,” for their dogs. The sausage in one form or another is a staple in the average...

Sugar Beets

Sugar Beets   Reference library

Cathy K. Kaufman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...in excess of $1 billion annually. Significantly, Utah has had no sugar beet industry since the 1980s, although in 2002 , its state legislature named the sugar beet Utah's “historic state vegetable.” The concentrated sweetness of the sugar beet (a good harvest can reach up to 20 percent sugar) prevented its acceptance as a table vegetable in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: Amelia Simmons 's American Cookery ( 1796 ) critiqued the “white” beet that “has a sickish sweetness, which is disliked by many.” More recently, it is grown as a specialty...

Potatoes

Potatoes   Reference library

Ellen Messer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...into rotations with corn (the major staple food for humans), clover, and other grains, roots, and tubers in the unrealized hope that potatoes would replenish the soils and that animals and workers would eat them. Potato commerce first entered the U.S. Census in 1840 , showed a 20 to 30 percent decline owing to blight by 1843 , and then rebounded in the late 1850s to 1860s, as new varieties and cultivation techniques became available. The most important introduction of new seeding material was Rough Purple Chili, which provided the ancestry for the Russet...

Sustainability

Sustainability   Reference library

Christina Bronsing, Carolyn Dimitri, and Meryl Rosofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Modified Foods ; Organic Food .] Bibliography Agricultural Marketing Service. “ Farmers Market Growth: 1994–2011 .” http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateS&leftNav=WholesaleandFarmersMarket&page=WFMFarmersMarketGrowth&description=Farmers%20Market%20Growth&acct=frmrdirmkt . Altieri Miguel A. Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture , 2d ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995. Berry, Wendell . Bringing It to the Table: On Farming and Food , with an introduction by Michael Pollan . Berkeley, Calif.:...

Appetizers

Appetizers   Reference library

Cathy K. Kaufman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2013

...this book is divided into chapters for different categories (hot, cold, sandwiches, canapés, first courses), each of which is introduced by a brief essay on the different functions served by hors d’oeuvres. Burros, Marion . “ The Small-Plate Club .” The New York Times , March 20, 2002. A report on the contemporary appetizers-as-dinner phenomenon. Eaton, Florence Taft . “ Varied Hors d’oeuvres .” Delineator 109, no. 31 (November 1926): 31, 124. A very interesting article addressed to the middle class, which includes recipes and techniques and explains the...

Diets, Fad

Diets, Fad   Reference library

Hea-Ran L. Ashraf and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...some fermented cereals, olive oil, and honey are allowed in less restricted regimens. Weight-Loss Industry and Fad Diets. Americans have been gaining weight, so much so that, as of 2010 , 61 percent of Americans are judged overweight. Obesity rates have risen from 12 percent to 20 percent of the population since 1991 . Serious health risks, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, together with social stigma, drove many Americans to seek fast-working weight-loss programs. As a result, a wide variety of fad reducing diets appeared on the market. By the...

Kitchen Gardening

Kitchen Gardening   Reference library

Elyse Friedman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...victory gardens also served as a self-help solution to deal with food shortages and rationing. Americans were urged to grow and preserve as much of their own food as possible in order to make commercially grown produce available to the troops overseas. It is estimated that nearly 20 million victory gardens were planted during World War II. In 1944 alone, more than one-third of the country's vegetables were grown in victory gardens. The end of the war, coupled with the return of national prosperity, signaled an end to the kitchen gardening movement. Back to...

Camping

Camping   Reference library

Carol G. Durst-Wertheim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...now amplify the lists of necessary and optional equipment commonly used and available from numerous suppliers. Many outdoor cooking guides now include recipes well beyond hot dogs, hamburgers, and s’mores, encouraging one-pot meals to be created in Dutch ovens in less than 20 minutes, with the least amount of heat derived from chopping wood, propane, or butane tanks. Camping cookbooks include instructions for beef stroganoff, chili, lentils, and macaroni and cheese. There are packaged products that are not highly perishable or heavy to transport...

Greek American Food

Greek American Food   Reference library

Sylvia Lovegren

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...olives and olive oil, garlic, lemon, tomatoes, fish and shellfish, lamb, oregano, cheese, wine, wheat, and an abundance of Mediterranean vegetables. Foods were primarily grilled or baked in the oven, with very few foods cooked on the stove top. Until the 1890s there were fewer than 20,000 Greeks in the United States. Then, between 1890 and 1917 about 450,000 Greeks immigrated to the United States and an additional 70,000 arrived between 1918 and 1924 . Most settled on the Eastern seaboard: Lowell and Boston in Massachusetts, New York City, Baltimore,...

World's Fairs

World's Fairs   Reference library

David Gerard Hogan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Space Needle, which dominates Seattle's skyline. The New York World's Fair of 1964–1965 was one of the most celebrated, yet least successful, of the twentieth-century expositions. Held on the same Flushing Meadows site in Queens as its 1939 predecessor, this fair suffered a $20 million deficit in its first year, with attendance numbers only half of those expected. Coca-Cola and Pepsi openly competed for soft drink consumers, staging the first round of the famed “Cola Wars.” While the fair's exhibits were largely unspectacular, its foods came from every...

Egyptian American Food

Egyptian American Food   Reference library

Khaled M. Younes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004. Khalil, Nagwa E. Egyptian Cuisine . Pueblo, Colo.: Passeggiata Press, 1980. Mallos, Tess . The Complete Middle East Cookbook . North Clarendon, Vt.: Tuttle Publishing, 2005. Raviv, Yael . “ Falafel: A National Icon .” Gastronomica 3 (2003): 20–25. Roden, Claudia . The New Book of Middle Eastern Food . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000. Torgersen, Susan . Flavors of Egypt: From City and Country Kitchens. Maadi, Egypt: S. Torgersen, 1972. Wilson, Hilary . Egyptian Food and Drink. Princes Risborough, England: Shire,...

Restaurants

Restaurants   Reference library

Mitchell Davis, Cathy K. Kaufman, and Alan S. Brody

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...food”) and full menu establishments nearly tripled. Leading the growth in this period were lower-income families: according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, those in the lowest 20 percent of income increased restaurant (including fast food) spending from 18.5 percent of the family food dollar to 24.3 percent. Those in other economic tranches increased as well, with the highest 20 percent of earners spending 37.6 percent of food dollars in restaurants, up from 33.3 percent a decade earlier. Not surprisingly, however, food dollars spent away from home are...

Nutrition

Nutrition   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and transfats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol.” Regarding weight gain, the guidelines recommend making “decreases in food and beverage calories” and increasing “physical activity.” In its preface the guidelines reported that “Currently, Americans consume less than 20 percent of the recommended intake for whole grains, less than 60 percent for vegetables, less than 50 percent for fruits, and less than 60 percent for milk and milk products. Inadequate intakes of nutrient-dense foods from these basic food groups place individuals at risk for lower...

Tomatoes

Tomatoes   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...filling, scalding, topping, wrapping, and boxing came into use. This equipment was integrated and interconnected by the 1920s, and tomato canning was fully automated. Another automation revolution occurred in the harvesting of tomatoes. Before World War II California produced 20 percent of the nation's tomatoes. The mechanical harvester caught on in California during the late 1940s. By 1953 California growers cultivated 83,000 acres and produced 50 percent of all tomatoes in the United States. The acreage had reached 130,000 by 1960 . The harvester...

Dairy Industry

Dairy Industry   Reference library

Daniel R. Block and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...operations. Between 1945 and 1978 , the number of commercial dairy farms dropped from 602,000 to 168,000. At the same time, total production per cow more than doubled, and the percentage of farms with more than fifty cows went from less than 1 percent in 1949 to more than 20 percent in 1981 . Milking machines became ubiquitous. Bulls disappeared, replaced by artificial insemination. Bulk storage tanks allowed milk pickup to occur three times rather than six times weekly. The seasonality of milk production was also modified, as government incentives...

Labeling

Labeling   Reference library

Kantha Shelke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...label would show 0 g of trans fat, even though the product actually contains a total of 2.7 g of trans fat. Because of current public health recommendations, RDIs for some nutrients represent the maximum limit considered desirable. The RDI is less than 65 g for total fat, less than 20 g for saturated fat, less than 300 mg for cholesterol, and less than 2,400 mg for sodium. As of October 2010 , the only micronutrients that are required to be included on all labels are vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron. Labels may describe the level of a nutrient in core...

California

California   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of California Press, 1962. Bitting. A. W. Appetizing or the Art of Canning . San Francisco: Trade Pressroom, 1937. Brenner, Leslie . American Appetite: The Coming of Age of a Cuisine . New York: Avon, 1999. Brown, Philip S. “ Old California Cook Books. ” Quarterly News Letter 20 (Winter 1954): 4–12. Hooker, Richard J. A History of Food and Drink in America . Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1981. Kuh, Patric . The Last Days of Haute Cuisine: America's Culinary Revolution . New York: Viking, 2001. Linsenmeyer, Helen Walker . From Fingers to Finger...

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