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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Einstein, Carl

Einstein, Carl (1885–1940)   Reference library

Charles W. Haxthausen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
1,855 words
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...decades after his death, largely undiscovered by Anglophone readers. He is known primarily as the author of Negerplastik ( 1915 ; “Negro Sculpture,” 2004 ), a landmark in the European reception of African art; the two major books of his maturity, Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts (Art of the 20th Century; 1926 , 1928 , 1931 ), in its time the most substantive study in any language of its subject, and Georges Braque ( 1934 ), the summa of Einstein’s mature aesthetic theory, have only recently been partially translated into English. Einstein’s writings...

Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Alexander Rehding

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,706 words
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2

...typically communicated by air molecules that are sensed by our eardrums and then processed in the brain. While the domain of acoustics has traditionally been the audible range from approximately 20 to 20,000 Hz (i.e., waves vibrating between 20 and 20,000 cycles per second), modern scientific acoustics also concerns infrasound (below 20 Hz) or ultrasound (above 20,000 Hz), both of which are inaudible to humans. Acoustics is applied in numerous practical fields, including musical instruments and tuning systems, sound engineering, speech processing,...

Bourgeois, Louise

Bourgeois, Louise (1911–2010)   Reference library

Mignon Nixon

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,523 words
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1

...2 (1999): 71–100. Potts, Alex . “Louise Bourgeois—Sculptural Confrontations.” Oxford Art Journal 22, no. 2 (1999): 37–53. Robbins, Daniel . “Sculpture by Louise Bourgeois.” Art International 8 (20 October 1964): 29–31. Rubin, William S. “Some Reflections Prompted by the Recent Work of Louise Bourgeois.” Studio International 8 (20 April 1969): 17–20. Storr, Robert . Louise Bourgeois Drawings . New York: Robert Miller Gallery, 1988. Strick, Jeremy . Louise Bourgeois: The Personages . Saint Louis, Mo.: Saint Louis Museum of Art, 1994. Wagner, Anne...

Video

Video   Reference library

James M. Moran

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,467 words
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1

...Video Criticism.” Millennium Film Journal 20/21 (Fall/Winter 1988–1989): 46–55. Jameson, Fredric . “Video: Surrealism without the Unconscious.” In Postmodernism: or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism , pp. 67–96. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1991. Kurtz, Bruce . “Video Is Being Invented.” Arts Magazine 47 (December/January 1973): 37–44. Marshall, Stuart . “Television/Video: Technology/Forms.” Afterimage 8/9 (Spring 1981): 70–85. Marshall, Stuart . “Video: Technology and Practice.” Screen 20, no. 1 (Spring 1979): 109–119. Nmungwun, Aaron...

African Aesthetics

African Aesthetics   Reference library

Barry Hallen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,682 words
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... “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern . Vol. 1, edited by William Rubin , pp. 125–175. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984. Price, Sally . Primitive Art in Civilized Places . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Rorty, Richard . Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature . Corr. ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980. Rubin, Arnold . African Accumulative Sculpture: Power and Display . New York: Pace Editions, 1974. Rubin, William . “Modernist Primitivism.” In “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art:...

Anthropology

Anthropology   Reference library

Susanne Küchler

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,465 words
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1

... Mary Douglas ( 1994 ) points to the nonarbitrary nature of categorization of objects in terms of value grounded in the capacity of objects to denote and exemplify relationships in that “objects constitute social systems and would have no recognisability if they did not” (p. 20). Douglas summarizes with her excurse on the “genuine article” anthropology’s long-standing recognition that aesthetics is a function not merely of language, but of the skill to discriminate in context. The socialness of concepts of value and taste and their activation in the...

Roman Aesthetics

Roman Aesthetics   Reference library

Richard Brilliant

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,447 words
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...the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 ce , prosaically inserted the most complete, if very condensed, history of Greek sculpture and painting that survived classical antiquity in Books 34–37 of his compendium of practical knowledge, the Natural History . Augustus of Prima Porta, ca . 20 bce (marble), Roman. vatican museums and galleries, vatican city / the bridgeman art library Even Pliny’s views about artworks and artists, if one can so dignify them, were shaped by Greek classicizing standards with little reference to past or present Roman artistic practice or...

Constructivism

Constructivism   Reference library

Daniel Herwitz

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,586 words
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...1977, reprint, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993. Lewison, Jeremy , ed. Circle: Constructive Art in Britain, 1934–1940 . Cambridge, U.K.: Kettle’s Yard Gallery, 1982. Catalog of the exhibition Circles: International Survey of Constructive Art, held at Kettle’s Yard Gallery, 20 February–24 March 1982. See “Constructive Art” by Naum Gabo, pp. 59–61. Milner, John . Vladimir Tatlin and the Russian Avant-Garde . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press 1983. Nisbet, Peter , ed. El Lissitzky, 1890–1941: Catalogue for an Exhibition of Selected Works from North...

Gift

Gift   Reference library

Dirk Quadflieg

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,802 words
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...made of shells circulate in a kind of endless ring between the islands. Again, these gifts establish a perpetual social bond among the kula partners based on the obligation to repay a gift—sometimes months or a year later—with “interest,” as Mauss puts it ( Mauss, 1966 , p. 20). Yet contrary to the warlike potlatch, the kula ring establishes a peaceful interchange among numerous tribes lasting generations. Moving on to the magical notion of the hau in New Zealand Maori culture, Mauss is led to explore the deeper structure of the obligation. According...

Information Theory

Information Theory   Reference library

Meredith Hoy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,677 words
Illustration(s):
2

...terms of statistical information instantiates the cultural imagination of the time, suffused with dreams and critiques of the capabilities and limitations of information-processing systems. Installation view of the exhibition Information . Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2 July–20 November 1970 . digital image © museum of modern art / licensed by scala / art resource, new york In some sense, any artwork involving the use of electronic computation must be “about” information, as it is produced by an information-processing system. Many artworks that predate the...

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig (1886–1969)   Reference library

K. Michael Hays

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,977 words
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1

...Lambert, Phyllis . Mies in America . New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001. Mertins, Detlef . Mies . New York: Phaidon, 2013. Mertins, Detlef , ed. The Presence of Mies . New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig . The Mies van der Rohe Archive . 20 vols. Edited by Arthur Drexler . New York: Garland, 1986–1992. Neumeyer, Fritz . The Artless Word: Mies van der Rohe on the Building Art . Translated by Mark Jarzombek . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. Quetglas, José . “Fear of Glass: The Barcelona Pavilion.” In Architect...

Public Art

Public Art   Reference library

Cher Krause Knight

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,311 words
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1

...with self-serving interests, usually from royalty or the ruling classes and utilizing artworks to symbolize their social clout and political might. The famed Portrait of Augustus from Primaporta, Italy (known to us now only as a marble copy of a bronze original of ca . 20 bce ), depicted the sitter as a general to represent his supposed military prowess. Given that most Roman subjects would never see Augustus in person they would be unlikely to question the godlike presence of the emperor or his eternally youthful appearance, which was propagated...

Race

Race   Reference library

David Bindman

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,716 words
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...of African expression, but placing it in the context of the art of an urban elite. The implicit connection between modern art and primitivism continued to be a defining trope until the controversial exhibition held at the Museum of Modern Art in 1984 , titled “Primitivism and 20th-century Art,” which marked an important stage in the widespread rejection of the very idea of the primitive as an aesthetic category. In the first decades of the twentieth century the German American anthropologist Franz Boas was beginning to deny the biological basis of race in...

Relational Aesthetics

Relational Aesthetics   Reference library

Beata Hock

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,230 words
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... Situationist Aesthetics .] Bibliography Bishop, Clare . “Antagonism and Relational Aesthetics.” October 110 (2004): 51–79. Bourriaud, Nicolas . “Precarious Constructions: Answer to Jacques Rancière on Art and Politics.” Cahier on Art and the Public Domain Open 17 (2009): 20–37. Bourriaud, Nicolas . Relational Aesthetics . Translated by Simon Pleasance and Fronza Woods with the participation of Mathieu Copeland. Dijon, France: Les Presses du Réel, 2002. English version of Esthétique relationnelle , first published 1998. Debord, Guy . The Society...

Dadaism

Dadaism   Reference library

Curtis L. Carter

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,073 words
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1

...the opening of IBM’s office in New York, women marching for the right to vote in the United States, and the opening of the first American radio broadcasting station (in Pittsburgh), to mention a few. Opening of the Exhibition Dada Max Ernst, 2 May 1921 . French photographer, 20th century. bibliothèque littéraire jacques doucet, paris / archives charmet / the bridgeman art library Other major intellectual and artistic changes were happening concurrent with Dada. Sigmund Freud published Totem and Taboo ( 1913 ), and Albert Einstein published his General...

Impressionism

Impressionism   Reference library

James D. Herbert

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,184 words
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1

...of Modern Art, 1973. Schapiro, Meyer . Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions . New York: George Braziller, 1997. Schapiro, Meyer . “The Nature of Abstract Art.” Marxist Quarterly 1, no. 1 (January–March 1937): 77–98. Reprinted in Meyer Schapiro, Modern Art: 19th and 20th Centuries (New York: George Braziller, 1978), pp. 185–211. Shiff, Richard . Cézanne and the End of Impressionism: A Study of the Theory, Technique, and Critical Evaluation of Modern Art . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. James D. Herbert ...

Pre-Columbian Aesthetics

Pre-Columbian Aesthetics   Reference library

Esther Pasztory

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,058 words
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1

...Selected Readings , edited by Aldona Jonaitis and Zena Pearlstone Mathews , pp. 7–30. Palo Alto, Calif.: Peek, 1982. Pasztory, Esther . “Still Invisible: The Problems of the Aesthetics of Abstraction in Pre-Columbian Art and Its Implications for Other Traditions.” RES 19–20 (1990–1991): 105–136. Pasztory, Esther . Thinking with Things: Toward a New Vision of Art . Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005. Proskouriakoff, Tatiana . The Study of Classic Maya Sculpture . Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 593. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie ...

Kant, Immanuel

Kant, Immanuel   Reference library

Paul Guyer, Salim Kemal, Kenneth R. Westphal, Theodore A. Gracyk, Günter Zöller, Mark A. Cheetham, Rudolf A. Makkreel, Jane Kneller, and Thierry de Duve

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
37,390 words
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1

...class of objects under any formulable rule (section 18). Here he also emphasizes that our judgments of beauty are always “conditional” rather than certain (section 19), even though we do suppose that they have a basis in shared cognitive faculties or a sensus communis (sections 20–21). There are many obscurities and confusions in Kant’s exposition: notably, the claim that judgments of taste are universally valid does not logically follow from the claim that they are disinterested, which in any case was a controversial point from which to begin; the claim that...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Anne Hollander, Anne Hollander, Richard Martin, and Marie-Aude Baronian

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,019 words
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1

...are dressed animals. Some applied imaginative change is required by all civilizations for unfinished human creatures before they feel at home in their skin, the world, and the cosmos. [ See also Anthropology ; and Comparative Aesthetics .] Bibliography Boucher, François . 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment . Exp. ed. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1987. Brain, Robert . The Decorated Body . New York: Harper & Row, 1979. Broby-Johansen, R. Body and Clothes: An Illustrated History of Costume . Translated by Erik I. Friis...

Diderot, Denis

Diderot, Denis   Reference library

Gita May and John Goodman

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,842 words
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1

...Works of Diderot Oeuvres . Edited by André Billy . Paris: Gallimard, 1951. Oeuvres complètes . Edited by Herbert Dieckmann , et al. Paris: Hermann, 1975–. Oeuvres complètes . 15 vols. Edited by Roger Lewinter . Paris: Le Club Francṃais, 1969–1973. Oeuvres complètes . 20 vols. Edited by Jules Assézat and Maurice Tourneux . Paris: Garnier, 1875–1877. Oeuvres esthétiques . Edited by Paul Vernière . Paris: Garnier, 1963. Oeuvres politiques . Edited by Paul Vernière . Paris: Garnier, 1963. Translations of Diderot Diderot on Art . Vol. 1, The...

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