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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Biogeography of Africa

Biogeography of Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,291 words
Illustration(s):
1

...patches of vegetation grow around oases or sprout after occasional torrential rains. In general, biological proliferation is an “event-driven” affair in arid regions. Life happens when rain falls. Sometimes deserts receive as little as 20 mm (1 in) of rain annually, and even semiarid regions seldom get more than 500 mm (20 in). Although aridity is typically accompanied by extremely high daytime temperatures, sometimes over 40° C (104° F), at night temperatures can drop precipitously, often to near 0° C (32° F). Mediterranean Because of the moderating effect...

Burundi

Burundi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,638 words
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2

...media. In response, Hutu soldiers organized a series of unsuccessful coup attempts, culminating in a 1972 uprising among Hutu groups ranging from refugees and guerrillas based in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to schoolteachers, students, and civil servants. As many as 20,000 Tutsi were killed. Micombero retaliated not only by executing the instigators, but also by sending the military and youth groups into the countryside to kill all Hutu “intellectuals,” meaning anyone with more than a grade-school education. More than 100,000 Hutu died between...

Darfur

Darfur   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...militias forced more than 2.5 million people—mostly farmers—to flee to refugee camps. Some 300,000 have died or been killed, and tens of thousands of homes have been destroyed. It was not until 2006 that the United Nations intervened in any meaningful sense, dispatching more than 20,000 peacekeeping troops to the troubled region. Two years later, prosecutors at the International Criminal Court indicted Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir for crimes against humanity, including several counts of genocide. Foreign Support for Darfur A protester in London displays...

Great Zimbabwe

Great Zimbabwe   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...and Chimanimani mountain ranges in the east. Many other smaller ruins built in the style of Great Zimbabwe are scattered throughout modern Zimbabwe, eastern Botswana, and northern Mozambique, demonstrating the scope of Great Zimbabwe’s influence. Great Zimbabwe had about 10,000 to 20,000 inhabitants shortly before its abrupt decline at the end of the fifteenth century. Historians disagree on the cause of Great Zimbabwe’s fall. Many scholars believe that the city’s population grew so large that it used up the region’s agricultural resources, forcing inhabitants...

Côte d’Ivoire

Côte d’Ivoire   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,906 words
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...Agni, Kru, Voltaic, and Mande peoples. There is a significant Lebanese community. A large number of immigrants come from Liberia, Burkina Faso, and Mali. Religions: Between 20 and 30 percent of the population is Christian, between 35 and 40 percent is Muslim, and between 24 and 40 percent adhere to indigenous beliefs. The majority of migrant workers are Muslim (70 percent) and Christian (20 percent). Climate: Tropical along the coast, semi-arid in the far north, and varying at the center between forest and savanna. In the southern region temperatures vary...

Lesotho

Lesotho   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,093 words
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...in South African gold mines, and the closing of many textile and clothing factories because of competition from China. In a few years, with advertising that encouraged African clothing as an ethical choice, the textile industry resurged. After the worst drought in thirty years, 20 percent of the population faced food shortages in 2007 ; the following year was even worse. More than 70 percent of the country’s food supply was imported, and costs rose so high that many people could afford neither food nor fuel, which rose by 50 percent and 100 percent,...

Liberia

Liberia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,469 words
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...to flee with parents, and educational institutions were destroyed. Since the peace accord of 2003 , rebuilding has begun, but progress is slow. Languages: English is the official language but is spoken by only 20 percent of the population. Most of the population speaks at least one language from the Niger-Congo language group of about 20 languages. Some of the more widely spoken languages are Mande, West Atlantic, and Kwa. Ethnic Groups: About 95 percent of the population comes from one of 15 ethnic groups: the Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano,...

Madagascar

Madagascar   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,447 words
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...(226,597 sq mi) Location: Southern Africa; island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique Capital: Antananarivo (population 1,612,632; 2009 estimate) Other Major Cities: Toamasina (population 219,669), Fianarantsoa (179,302), and Mahajanga (162,807) ( 2009 estimates) Population: 20,653,556 ( 2009 estimate) Population Density: 35.1 persons per sq km (about 91.1 persons per sq mi) Population Below Age 15: 43.5 percent (male 4,523,033; female 4,460,473; 2009 estimate) Population Growth Rate: 3 percent ( 2009 estimate) Total Fertility Rate: 5.14 children per...

Namibia

Namibia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,822 words
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...produce significant revenue for the government. Several other issues have recently created unrest and controversy in Namibia. In 1999 fighting broke out between Namibian troops and separatists who want independence for the Caprivi Strip . The UN recently estimated that about 20 percent of the adult population in Namibia has HIV or AIDS; the death rate from malaria infection increases by 50 percent with an HIV infection, making it difficult for the government to keep up with the health needs of the people. In 2001 Nujoma launched a campaign to remove...

Carthage

Carthage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
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2,047 words
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...tribes, who rolled rocks down upon it from the heights. Snow falling on narrow icy paths created perilously slippery conditions. The elephants often fell to their death. Provisions ran short and hundreds starved, while thousands more deserted or were hurt or killed. Reduced to 20,000 men, 6,000 cavalry, and only a few of the war elephants, the army descended into the Po River valley after a journey of five months from Cartagena. A lesser man might have turned tail and gone home. Instead, Hannibal met one Roman army on the Ticino and defeated it, and then...

Geomorphology, African

Geomorphology, African   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,186 words
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2

...valleys formed when tectonic plates expanded, opening wide and steep chasms that stretch for nearly 7,000 km (4,350 mi), from Jordan through the Red Sea to central Mozambique. Vertical walls reach 900 m (about 3,000 ft) in some places, and the valley width ranges from 32 to 80 km (20 to 50 mi). Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi, and Lake Turkana all lie within these valleys. The tectonic forces behind the rift have caused extreme displacements of geological strata, allowing paleontologists and anthropologists access to prehistoric fossil records. Volcanic activity...

Benin

Benin   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,314 words
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...Religions: About 50 percent of the population adhere to indigenous beliefs. Christians account for about 30 percent of the population; Muslims make up about 20 percent. Climate: Tropical in the south, semi-arid in the north. The south receives about 1,300 mm (about 51 in) of rainfall a year, mostly between March and July and between October and November. The average temperatures in the south range from 20° C (68° F) to 34° C (93° F). The temperatures in the north are nearly the same. In the north the rainy season occurs between May and September and annual...

Djibouti

Djibouti   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,168 words
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...Assembly. However, in granting equal numbers of seats to Afars, Arabs, and Somalis (including the Issas), the French exacerbated pre-existing ethnic tensions, particularly since these groups’ populations in the country were not equal. (The population was roughly 20 percent Afar , 35 percent Issa, 20 percent non-Issa Somali, 5 percent Arab, and 5 percent French; the remainder are other foreigners.) Armed conflicts broke out between the Gadaboursis and Issas in 1949 . The French electoral system classified both of these groups as Somalis and thus permitted...

Eritrea

Eritrea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,883 words
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...before the war, large numbers of Eritreans had migrated to the Persian Gulf, Europe, and North America in search of employment, and now expatriate communities became a key source of monetary support for the rebel movement. Some observers estimate that Eritreans abroad sent back $20 million a month—up to 70 percent of their salaries, in some places—enabling the ELF and EPLF to sustain the war despite in-fighting, drought, military setbacks, and political isolation. The rebels also stole massive amounts of military supplies from the Ethiopian army. The war’s...

Malawi

Malawi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,423 words
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...Principal ethnic groups include the Chewa, the Nyanja, the Tumbuka, the Ngoni, and the Yao. Remaining inhabitants, principally settlers of British and Indian origin, form less than half of 1 percent of the population. Religions: About 55 percent are Protestant, 20 percent Roman Catholic, 20 percent Muslim; the remainder practice traditional religions. Climate: The climate varies with the elevation. The low-lying Shire Valley is hot and humid with temperatures averaging from 21° C (69° F) to 29° C (84° F). The highlands are more temperate. Annual rainfall...

Swaziland

Swaziland   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,991 words
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...products) and forestry for its exports, while subsistence farming and cattle ranching account for most of its domestic economic base. Swaziland’s other major, hidden export continues to be labor—it is estimated that remittance from Swazi mineworkers in South Africa adds as much as 20 percent to Swaziland’s GDP. The spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) represents another major domestic crisis, with some rural areas reporting an infection rate as high as 50 percent. In 1993 Mswati III called for Swaziland’s first general election in twenty...

Education in Africa

Education in Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,955 words
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...60.9 Tunisia 74.2 Uganda 69.9 Western Sahara N/A Zambia 80.6 Zimbabwe 90.7 Source: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook 2003 In the first years of independence, African educational systems expanded tremendously. Primary enrollment rose from 11.8 million in 1960 to 20.9 million in 1970 (not including South Africa and Namibia ). Secondary enrollment increased from 793,000 in 1960 to 2.5 million in 1970 . Expansion was buoyed by citizens’ demand for education and by governments’ and organizations’ faith that education would bring economic...

Health Care in Africa

Health Care in Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,003 words
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...would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years, declined from 6.7 in 1978 to 5.4 in 1998 (including a notable drop from 8.1 to 4.5 in Kenya ). There is also considerable morbidity from all causes. A survey done in Côte d'Ivoire showed that 20 percent of adults had been sick for a week or more in the last month, with 12 percent inactive for that length of time. Although sub-Saharan Africa has 10 percent of the world's population, it has 24 percent of the total world burden measured in disability-adjusted life years...

South Africa

South Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,584 words
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...livestock and, more importantly, introduced iron tools, weapons, and agriculture to the region. The number of Bantu peoples grew rapidly, and they established southern Africa’s first large settled communities. Ancestors of the Sotho people, for example, lived in towns of up to 20,000 people. Some San and Khoikhoi were incorporated into these communities, while others were pushed onto more marginal lands. Although cattle raiding between Bantu peoples was common, little concentrated political power was built on the basis of this wealth. Political power in the...

Ethiopia

Ethiopia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,088 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in February or March by a short rainy season. The tropical zone has an average annual temperature of about 27˚ C (about 80˚ F) and receives less than about 510 mm (about 20 in) of rain annually. The subtropical zone, which includes most of the highland plateau, has an average temperature of about 22˚ C (about 72˚ F) with an annual rainfall ranging from about 510 to 1,530 mm (about 20 to 60 in). Land, Plants, and Animals: The Ethiopian Plateau, a high tableland covering more than half the total area of the country, is split by the Great Rift Valley. In the...

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