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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Interactions among Precolonial Foragers, Herders, and Farmers in Southern Africa

Interactions among Precolonial Foragers, Herders, and Farmers in Southern Africa   Reference library

James R. Denbow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,802 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Kari. “Kalahari Archaeology and the Bushman Debate.” Current Anthropology 38, no. 1 (1997): 104–112. Sadr, Kari. “Invisible Herders? The Archaeology of Khoekhoe Pastoralists.” Southern African Humanities 20 (2008): 179–203. Smith Andrew B. “Pastoral Origins at the Cape, South Africa: Influences and Arguments.” Southern African Humanities 20 (2008): 49–60. Wilmsen, Ed , and J. Denbow . “Paradigmatic History of San-Speaking Peoples and Current Attempts at Revision.” Current Anthropology 31, no. 5 (1990): 489–524. Linguistics Bostoen, Koen , and B...

Ceramics, Foodways, and Consumption: Methods

Ceramics, Foodways, and Consumption: Methods   Reference library

Liza Gijanto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,209 words
Illustration(s):
2

...DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998), 20. 7. Technical style as defined by archaeologists involves all of the decisions made by the potter including clay and temper selection, the method used to construct the pot, how the pot is fired, and the decoration applied. 8. Susan Keech McIntosh , Excavations at Jenne-Jeno, Hambarketolo, and Kaniana (Inland Niger Delta, Mali), the 1981 Season (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 212. 9. Frank, Mande Potters and Leatherworkers , 20. 10. Dean E. Arnold , Ceramic Theory and...

Numerical Data and Statistical Sources

Numerical Data and Statistical Sources   Reference library

Leigh Gardner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,648 words
Illustration(s):
2

...geographical variation and subnational inequalities in economic and political structures across the continent. This work has revealed a much more comprehensive quantitative picture of Africa’s history. Some lost corners still remain, and coverage has been uneven. The 19th and 20th centuries receive the most detailed analysis owing to the availability of data. 7 Some efforts to extrapolate backward remain controversial. Quantitative research relies heavily on records collected by colonial institutions and has been dominated by the study of British and...

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes   Reference library

Justin Pargeter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,737 words
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5

...Late- 19th - and early- 20th-century approaches emphasized “evolutionary” sequences among lithic assemblages. 31 Prior to the 1960s, major research questions in stone-tool studies were largely culture-history oriented. 32 They focused on describing similarities and differences among stone-tool industries and other archaeologically constructed entities. 33 Research in the mid- 20th century focused on categorical variation among stone tools, their assemblage structure, and sources of change and variability. 34 Later 20th-century research placed...

Ethnographic Analogy in Archaeology: Methodological Insights from Southern Africa

Ethnographic Analogy in Archaeology: Methodological Insights from Southern Africa   Reference library

Mark McGranaghan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,144 words
Illustration(s):
3

...are made more explicit. For many early- 20th-century scholars, the assumption of the naturalness of the “art” category was sufficient in and of itself to explain the presence of practices that could—self-evidently—be described as “artistic.” This issue was perhaps particularly emphasized in southern Africa, where several rock art traits (such as countershading and naturalism) overlapped with those of western European “fine” art traditions. Art pour l’art (or art for art’s sake) explanations used these 19th - and 20th-century European traditions as a...

Material Culture as a Historical Source

Material Culture as a Historical Source   Reference library

Robert Ross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,023 words
Illustration(s):
1

...culture among her subjects. 16 In contrast to this were those who were concerned with questions concerning the adaptation European lifestyles by the African colonial elite. 17 Each of these approaches contains its own biases, which have to be taken into account. As the 20th century progressed, an increasing amount of effort and money was spent on advertising aimed at the African market, in a variety of colonial and postcolonial settings. For instance, from the early 1950s, there were three major monthly magazines in South Africa that targeted...

Travelers’ Accounts as Sources

Travelers’ Accounts as Sources   Reference library

Adam Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,053 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as valid unless it was proved otherwise.” She illustrates this with the case of the so-called Bush King, first described by a missionary in 1856 in connection with an annual cycle of ceremonies and thereafter mentioned repeatedly, at first by other visitors and then, in the mid- 20th century , by anthropologists and Dahomeyan scholars. The concept of a Bush King, she notes, fitted “comfortably” with Dahomey’s ideology of doubling, yet oral traditions suggest that there never existed a real person with this office. Historians of Africa should heed Bay’s...

Writing African History in France during the Colonial Era

Writing African History in France during the Colonial Era   Reference library

Sophie Dulucq

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,493 words
Illustration(s):
3

...or even to do without it. It is also clear that, nowadays, it is hard to use it in a way that would not be both wild and guilty , in other words uncontrolled .” 2 It is therefore necessary to revisit the practice of African historical studies in late- 19th - and early- 20th-century France to evaluate the context of their emergence, the characteristics and biases of their production, and the often underestimated weight of their legacy. In other words, when and how did a history of Africa emerge in colonial France, and by whom was this historical...

Kingdoms of South-Central Africa: Sources, Historiography, and History

Kingdoms of South-Central Africa: Sources, Historiography, and History   Reference library

David M. Gordon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
18,486 words
Illustration(s):
10

...it within a physical landscape. Lukasa boards, together with the oral tradition, thus acted as a sort of historical map that could only be read by expert storytellers. 8 Figure 2. Luba lukasa memory board . Late 19th or early 20th century. Dimensions 25.4 × 14.6 × 4.4 cm. Brooklyn Museum, Gift of Marcia and John Friede, 76.20.4. Creative Commons License . Scholars transformed these insider narratives into histories to be generally appreciated: that is, universal histories. The most effective narratives to work with were the broadly shared traditions of genesis...

Climatology: Methods

Climatology: Methods   Reference library

Sharon E. Nicholson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,177 words
Illustration(s):
22

...wet or dry conditions, respectively. Confirmation of this situation in eastern Africa was later provided by lake sediments. 54 A more detailed semi-quantitative climate reconstruction further supported the occurrence of widespread aridity at this time ( figure 20 ). 55 Figure 20. Anomaly pattern for a composite of the 1830s, expressed on a seven-point scale ranging from –3 (extremely dry) to +3 (extremely wet). This approach also demonstrated the occurrence of severe drought in the Sahel in the 1640s, 1680s, c . 1738–1756 , the 1770s, the 1790s...

Historical Linguistics: Classification

Historical Linguistics: Classification   Reference library

Constanze Weise

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,028 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the various languages. Figure 1. Cognation matrix of Southern Cushitic languages. The cognation chart is reproduced with permission of Christopher Ehret. Christopher Ehret, The Historical Reconstruction of Southern Cushitic Phonology and Vocabulary (Berlin: Reimer, 1980), 20. Once the cognates have been determined, it is important to understand which changes the various languages have undergone in order to understand shared innovations. This is achieved by going line by line through the hundred-word-list. The following example demonstrates this process...

Historical Linguistics: Words and Things

Historical Linguistics: Words and Things   Reference library

Rhonda M. Gonzales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,206 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for comparative historical linguistics to contribute rich insights into the meanings of those things that are uncovered. 20 Discussion of the Literature Linguists’ research in the 19th century toward classifying Africa’s languages into phyla or families set the framework for the corpus of scholarship that comparative historical linguists took up as a primary method for reconstructing early African history, especially since the mid- 20th century . Across this period, there have ensued healthy debates of two sorts. One thread has centered on the ways that...

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology   Reference library

Vincent J. Hare and Emma Loftus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,060 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Reviews 25, no. 19–20 (October 1, 2006): 2569–2585. TT-OSL methods rely upon traps that are less light sensitive and that accumulate electrons more slowly, so saturating at considerably greater ages. However, these require a long bleaching period, and so are applicable only in certain geological contexts; see Robyn Pickering et al., “Paleoanthropologically Significant South African Sea Caves Dated to 1.–1.0 Million Years Using a Combination of U–Pb, TT-OSL and Palaeomagnetism,” Quaternary Science Reviews 65 (April 1, 2013): 39–52. 20. For example, the...

Exploring Present Pasts: Popular Arts as Historical Sources

Exploring Present Pasts: Popular Arts as Historical Sources   Reference library

Bogumil Jewsiewicki and Allen F. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,414 words
Illustration(s):
4

...been slow to escape Eurocentric, positivist paradigms. 3 Until African epistemologies are understood and appreciated, and, as Rowland Abiodun would have it, until we “seek the African in African art,” “art” itself will remain an exclusively Western concept. 4 Even late in the 20th century , most Western specialists’ studies neglected to identify when works were produced or performed, as well as historical and memory-driven moments of the cultural constructions in which such arts participated. Nonhistoricized, orphaned from context, reduced to form, the...

Pottery chaînes opératoires as Historical Documents

Pottery chaînes opératoires as Historical Documents   Reference library

Olivier P. Gosselain

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,290 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Ceramics to History: A Challenge Based on Evidence from Medieval Nubia,” Current Anthropology 20, no. 4 (1979): 727–744. 59. Frank, “Reconstructing the History”; and Frank, Mande Potters . 60. Nicolas Nikis, Louis Champion, and Els Cranshof, “Putting Together the Mande Puzzle: Mapping Pottery Techniques and Identities in West Africa” (unpublished paper presented at the Society of Africanist Archaeologists 21st Biennial Meeting, Toronto, Canada, June 20–23, 2012). 61. Claire Grégoire and Bernard de Halleux, “Étude lexicostatistique de...

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods   Reference library

David K. Wright

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,781 words
Illustration(s):
3

... M. J. Kohn , M. J. Schoeninger , and J. W. Valley , “Herbivore Tooth Oxygen Isotope Compositions: Effects of Diet and Physiology,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, no. 20 (1996): 3889–3896; and M. Sponheimer and J. A. Lee-Thorp , “Oxygen Isotopes in Enamel Carbonate and Their Ecological Significance,” Journal of Archaeological Science 26, no. 6 (1999): 723–728. 20. For example, M. Balasse et al., “The Seasonal Mobility Model for Prehistoric Herders in the South-Western Cape of South Africa Assessed by Isotopic Analysis of Sheep Tooth...

West African Manuscripts in Arabic and African Languages and Digital Preservation

West African Manuscripts in Arabic and African Languages and Digital Preservation   Reference library

Fallou Ngom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,408 words
Illustration(s):
13

...l’Université de Dakar, 1991). 18. For more on the Ajamization framework and processes, see Fallou Ngom , Muslims beyond the Arab World: The Odyssey of Ajami and the Muridiyya (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), 19–20 and 247–250. 19. See Louis Verner, “Mauritania’s Manuscripts,” Aramco World (Vol. 54, No. 6, 2003). 20. Verner, “Mauritania’s Manuscripts.” 21. See Louis Verner, “Mauritania’s Manuscripts,” Aramco World (Vol. 54, No. 6, 2003). For more on major Senegambian scholars and their works, see Ousmane O. Kane and John O....

Archaeozoology: Methods

Archaeozoology: Methods   Reference library

Veerle Linseele

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,918 words
Illustration(s):
6

...of archaeological bones with those of recent specimens of known size. Such estimates will be more reliable the more fish of different sizes are represented in the reference material used. Fish will usually be attributed to size classes, for example, of 10 cm (0–10 cm, 10–20 cm, 20–30 cm, etc.). Description of Modifications and Pathologies. During faunal analysis, archaeozoologists describe the appearance of the animal remains and the diverse modifications that can be seen on them. These modifications can be either anthropogenic or natural and can inform on...

Community-based Approaches to African History

Community-based Approaches to African History   Reference library

Peter R. Schmidt and Kathryn Weedman Arthur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
15,129 words
Illustration(s):
15

...Approach in an African Culture (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978). 19. To clarify the local names: the Bahaya or Haya (used here) live in Buhaya and speak Kihaya; for 20th-century meanings attached to Kaiija shrine, see Schmidt, Historical Archaeology; and, Historical Archaeology in Africa: Representation, Social Memory, and Oral Traditions (Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2006). 20. F. X. Lwamgira, Amakuru ga Kiziba na Abakama Bamu (Kashozi, Tanganyika: Rumuli Press, 1949), 5. 21. Fred Kaijage, a historian at the University of Dar es Salaam,...

Digital Sources for the History of the Horn of Africa

Digital Sources for the History of the Horn of Africa   Reference library

Massimo Zaccaria

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,371 words
Illustration(s):
4

...to aggressive philological examination or aesthetic attention.” 18 Digitization could encourage a policy of restoring manuscripts to their original locations, although such practices are still quite rare. 19 Since the late 20th century, microfilm has been the most widely used resource for archival preservation in sub-Saharan Africa. 20 For Ethiopian manuscript studies, the most successful microfilming project has been that of the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library (now the Hill Museum and Manuscript Library, St. John’s University, Collegeville, Minnesota),...

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