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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Beth-She῾arim

Beth-She῾arim   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,712 words
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1

...brief span of settlement. BETH-SHE῾ARIM. Figure 1. Entrance to catacomb 20 . (Courtesy E. M. Meyers) The various catacombs at the site differ from one another in size and style. Most consist of a series of connected caves (or halls), with burial places (trough-shaped kôkhîm , or arcosolia) cut into the walls. Remains of sarcophagi were found in a number of catacombs; the largest concentration was in catacomb 20, which contained the remains of 130 sarcophagi. Several catacombs (nos. 14, 20, and possibly 23) were especially monumental and consisted of a spacious...

Bull Site

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
335 words
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1

...auspices of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem revealed what appears to be a unique example of a bāmâ , or “high place,” dated to about 1200 bce . This is a single-period site, with only one structure: a circular enclosure surrounded by a wall constructed of large stones about 20 m in diameter. The wall ispoorly preserved as a result of erosion. The bedrock is exposed in most of the enclosure except on the east, where a standing stone is fronted by a small paved area that may be interpreted as a maṣṣēbâ . There may have been a sacred tree at the center of...

Yahudiyeh, Tell el-

Yahudiyeh, Tell el-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,272 words
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...Tell el- , site lying about 32 km (20 mi.) northeast of Cairo in Egypt's eastern Delta (30°17′ N, 31°20′ E), in pharaonic times Tell el-Yahudiyeh was in the thirteenth Lower Egyptian nome. Its Arabic name means “mound of the Jews”; this term alludes to the town and temple established at the site in the Ptolemaic period by the Jewish priest Onias. Its ancient Egyptian name was Nay-ta-hut or Nathō, and its Greek name was Leontopolis. Tell el-Yahudiyeh has been investigated half a dozen times over more than a century: the most important excavations were...

Biblical Temple

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,730 words
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3

...and the dĕbîr , the “inner sanctuary,” or most holy place. The length of this building was 60 cubits (the royal cubit was about 21 inches), its width was 20 cubits, and its height was 25 cubits. The 'ûlām was 20 cubits wide and 10 cubits long (defining it as a breitraum , or Ger., “broad room,” architectural type). The hêkāl was 40 cubits long, and the dĕbîr , the most holy place, was a cube, 20 cubits on each side. The holy of holies was, thus, 5 cubits shorter than the rest of the building. Of the many attempts to explain this difference, the most...

Sarcophagus

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
921 words
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...the primary burial of a human corpse. Sarcophagi were widely used throughout the ancient Near East. Made of wood, clay, or stone, sarcophagi range in size from small specimens like the Jebel el-Mukabbir sarcophagus (2.02 × 0.65 × 0.56 m) to the very large examples found in catacomb 20 at Beth-She῾arim (approaching 2 × 1.5 × 0.75 m) in Israel. [See Beth-She῾arim .] Stone sarcophagi were typically hollowed out from large blocks of basalt, limestone, or marble, with limestone being the most common material used. The rims of stone sarcophagi are typically at...

Cult

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,924 words
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3

...mediums and necromancers were attacked by their increasingly powerful rivals in Israel during and following the period of the Divided Kingdom ( Dt .18:10–12; Lv. 19:31; 20:6, 27 ). Professional mourners, frequently women skilled in weeping, wailing, and the composition of lamentations, are attested in a number of contexts (“Kirta”; Jer .9:16–18, 19–20 [Eng. 17–19, 20–21]; 2 Sm . 1:20, 24 ). It is clear that women played an important role in death-related specializations in at least some Northwest Semitic cults. [See also Arad ; Beersheba ; Canaanites ;...

Malyan

Malyan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,744 words
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3

...city wall. More limited excavations were undertaken in a narrow trench across the city wall (BY8), and in the H5 deep sounding below later Kaftari buildings in operation GHI. ABC operation. Four Proto-Elamite buildings from building levels 2–5 were excavated in the ABC operation (20 by 30 m, reduced to 10 by 13 m in the lowest level). Building Level 5, founded at the level of the plain, was made of unfired mud bricks, like all the buildings excavated at Malyan. Building Level 4 was constructed directly on the remains of the razed walls of Building Level 5. The...

Qadesh-Barnea

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,564 words
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... for example, Nm. 20:13 ). In the biblical tradition, Qadesh-Barnea played an important role in the Israelite wilderness wanderings. It was the site from which Moses, at God's command, sent a group of twelve men, one from each tribe, to investigate the Promised Land ( Nm. 13:26 ). Later it was where the king of Edom, meeting with another delegation, denied the Israelites permission to pass through his realm on their way to Canaan ( Nm. 20:14 ). Kadesh is also where Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron ( Nm. 20:1 ) died and was buried...

Dolmen

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
696 words
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...may have served as local territory markers—particularly in times of scarce pasture—or as symbols of power and ideological affiliation. [See also Burial Sites ; Cave Tombs .] Bibliography Epstein, Claire. “ Dolmens Excavated in the Golan. ” ῾Atiqot (English Series) 17 (1985): 20–58. Contains a good sample of dolmen forms and recovered artifacts that illustrate reuse from the Intermediate Bronze Age through the Late Bronze Age. Prag, Kay. “The Dead Sea Dolmens: Death and the Landscape.” In The Archaeology of Death in the Ancient Near East , edited by ...

Altars

Altars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,065 words
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1

...Galling, Kurt . Der Altar in den Kulturen des alten Orients eine archäologische Studie . Berlin, 1925. Classic study of the phenomenon of altars in the ancient Near East. Gitin, Seymour . “ Incense Altars from Ekron, Israel, and Judah: Context and Typology. ” Eretz-Israel 20 (1989): 52⋆–67⋆. Authoritative study of four-horned incense altars in the Iron Age. Haak, Robert D. “Altar.” In The Anchor Bible Dictionary , vol. 1, pp. 162–167. New York, 1992. Convenient summary of information concerning altars in the written and archaeological record. Hägg,...

Stelae

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,469 words
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2

...second millennium bce ), the stelae of the Levantine coast found in temples show features derived from both Egypt and Mesopotamia. The ordinary type was the flat slab with the curved top, of variable dimensions (e.g., the series from Ugarit ranges in height from approximately 0.20 to 1.50 m). Their representations are of an essentially religious nature: votive stelae representing a deity (e.g., the Baal with the Lightning Bolt at Ugarit); or a symbolic motif (e.g., the astral motif at Hazor); or bearing an inscription tied to the cult of a god (e.g., the...

Yassiada Wrecks

Yassiada Wrecks   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,361 words
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...to excavate one of them between 1961 and 1964 . A seventh-century Byzantine ship, lying at a depth of 32–39 m, approximately 75 m south of the island, it is dated to about 626 ce by fifty-four copper and sixteen gold coins found in its wreckage. Of 60 tons burden, about 20.5 m long, with a beam of 5.2 m, the ship was built in the ancient shell-first manner below the waterline; its pine planks are held together by loosely fitting and widely spaced mortise-and-tenon joints. Above the waterline, however, it was built in the modern frame-first manner,...

Olives

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,806 words
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5

... 10:1 ); šmn hmr , “myrrh oil” ( Est. 2:12 ); šmn hṭwb ( 2Kgs. 20:13; Ps. 133:2 ), to be translated “spiced oil,” not “good oil”; šmn twrq ( Sg. 1:3 ), usually translated “poured oil,” but should, perhaps, be corrected to tmrwq , “cosmetic oil.” Of the three other types that appear, šmn r῾nn , “fresh oil” ( Ps. 92:11 ), may be a technical term for virgin oil; and šmn ktyt , literally, “pounded in a mortar” ( Ex. 27:20, 29:40; Lv. 24:2; Nm. 28:5; 1 Kgs. 5:25 ) and šmn rḥṣ , literally, “washed”...

Sinai

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,709 words
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4

...In L'urbanisation de la Palestine à l'âge du Bronze ancien: Bilan et perspectives des recherches actuelles; Actes du Colloque d'Emmaüs, 20–24 octobre 1986 , edited by Pierre de Miroschedji , pp. 389–405. British Archaeological Reports, International Series, no. 527. Oxford, 1989. Oren, Eliezer D. “ Military Architecture along the ‘Ways of Horus’: Egyptian Reliefs and Archaeological Evidence ” (in Hebrew). EretzIsrael 20 (1989): 8–22; 21 (1990): 6–22. Oren, Eliezer D. “Sinai, Northern.” In The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land...

Catacombs

Catacombs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,652 words
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2

...Jerusalem must have been the determining factor that led to the discontinuation of burial in catacombs there. From the Hellenistic and Roman Near East, several underground complexes are known whose walls are dotted with small niches, known as columbaria, measuring, on average, 20 × 20 × 15 cm. Examples of these columbaria are preserved in, among other places, Roman Palestine (Beth-Guvrin, Dor, Gezer, Masada, Ramat Rahel, Samaria); Roman Arabia (Petra); and Asia Minor (Sebaste in Cilicia). Such complexes are normally located in the same general areas as tombs....

῾Ein-Besor

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
798 words
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...I Settlement at ῾En Besor Oasis. ” Israel Exploration Journal 40 (1990): 1–11. Gophna, Ram , and Dan Gazit . “ The First Dynasty Egyptian Residency at En Besor. ” Tel Aviv 12 (1985): 9–16. Gophna, Ram , and Erich Friedmann . “ The Flint Implements from Tel ῾En Besor. ” Tel Aviv 20 (1993): 147–163. Quack, Joachim F. von . “ Die Datierung der Siegelabdrucke von Tel ῾En Besor. ” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 105 (1989): 18–26. Schulman, A. R. “ On the Dating of the Egyptian Seal Impressions from ῾En Besor. ” Journal of the Society for the Study of...

Ful, Tell El-

Ful, Tell El-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
706 words
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1

...1981 ) reexamines the evidence from the earlier excavations and the new ( 1964 ) data, distinguishing five periods of occupation. The first, Iron IA ( c. 1200–1150 bce ), is brief and without extensive finds. It is usually associated with the Benjaminites as recorded in Judges 19–20. The second period, Iron IC ( c. 1025–950 bce ), is the period of Saul's fortress, which was the principle standing ruin at the site. It was largely excavated by Albright, but Lapp generally confirmed his conclusions In 1964 and refined his plans. It is the assignment of the date...

Gezer Calendar

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
732 words
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...dual (/plural); third-person masculine singular pronominal suffixes are characteristic of early Byblian (the feature is as yet unattested in Northern Hebrew), while the proleptic use of these suffixes is more characteristic of Phoenician than of Hebrew (Pardee, 1987 , p. 139, n. 20; add to the bibliography cited there Honeyman, 1953 , and Rainey, 1983 , p. 630). On the lower left corner of the calendar is a partially preserved word generally taken as a personal name, perhaps that of the author/scribe: {' by […]}. Some reconstruct the name as Yahwistic ...

Larsa

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
961 words
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2

... ( modern Tell Senkereh ), , the royal capital of an important realm in southern Mesopotamia at the beginning of the second millennium bce , located about 20 km (12 mi.) from ancient Uruk and 100 km (62 mi.) from the modern city of Nasiriyyah. The site was noticed in the mid-nineteenth century by travelers exploring this desert region, specifically by William K. Loftus , who carried out several soundings for the Assyrian Excavation Fund in 1853–1854 that confirmed its identity with Larsa. In 1903 Walter Andrae , the excavator of Aššur,...

Meda'in saleh

Meda'in saleh   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
990 words
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...account, but it remains basic for any consideration of the history of the site. The earliest datable archaeological evidence appears to be seven monumental South Arabian inscriptions on reused building blocks, presumably the work of the Minean merchants established at Dedan, some 20 km (12 mi.) to the south, in about the fourth-third centuries bce . [See Dedan .] There are also some Lihyanite graffiti from about the same period. The kingdom of Lihyan, based at Dedan, probably fell to a Nabatean adventurer, Mas῾udu, in the second or early first century ...

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