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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Gatling gun

Gatling gun   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
252 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in hand-cranked machine guns. Its multiple barrels fed by gravity from drum or vertical clip magazines, the Gatling progressed from being hand-cranked to having its barrels revolved by electrical motor by the late 19th century. The American M61 ‘Vulcan’ aircraft cannon in 20 mm calibre and the helicopter-mounted ‘mini-gun’ in 7.62 mm calibre used in Vietnam are both derivations of Gatling's original multi-barrelled machine gun. Since the earliest days of firearms, designers dreamed of firing a continuous stream of projectiles. The first attempts...

Austerlitz, battle of

Austerlitz, battle of (1805)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
774 words
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...as the battle of the three emperors. Napoleon faced the combined armies of Emperor Francis II of Austria and Tsar Alexander of Russia, under the nominal command of the veteran Gen Kutuzov . Napoleon had captured an entire Austrian army of 27,000 men under Mack at Ulm on 20 October. Hearing of this disaster, Kutuzov began to retire, leaving the French to occupy Vienna. Napoleon resolved to march north to seek out and engage the Coalition forces, and allow his scattered detachments to join him on the way. He desperately needed a swift outcome to the...

Cambrai, battle of

Cambrai, battle of (1917)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
964 words
Illustration(s):
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...battle of ( 1917 ). Cambrai Day—20 November—is celebrated by the British Royal Tank Regiment as the first occasion when tanks were used on a large scale and with tactics specially devised for them, after a disappointing debut on the Somme in September 1916 and in support of infantry attacks at the third battle of Ypres . The British attack, by Third Army under Byng against the Hindeburg Line west of Cambrai, had mixed parentage. The Tank Corps, under Brig Gen Hugh Elles and his chief of staff Lt Col Fuller , saw the rolling downland as...

Kursk, battle of

Kursk, battle of (1943)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
754 words
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1

...and fast-moving Soviets. But more important, the Soviets knew the Germans were coming and built a huge defensive network 150–200 miles (241–321 km) deep. There were five to six defensive ‘belts,’ each 2–3 miles (3.2–4.8 km) deep. Most of the engineering effort went into the first 20 miles (32 km)—the ‘tactical zone’, with field defences, mines, and anti-tank guns. The battle of Kursk , July 1943. The German plan envisaged the Ninth Army under Model with five corps attacking the salient from the north, southwards from Orel, and Hoth's Fourth Panzer Army,...

Mexican war

Mexican war (1846–8)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
764 words
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1

...he hoped for a payment of $3 million, fuelling suspicion that his military operations were designed to enforce the agreement. If so, his need to act the role of national saviour believably was discounted or misinterpreted, an expensive error. The USA was to pay or forgive over $20 million in 1848 and a further $10 million in 1854 , plus the $70 million direct costs of the war itself. The New Mexico and California territories fell early to a small expedition under Kearny . To his rear a revolt of Pueblo Indians and unreconciled Mexicans was crushed by...

Karlstein, Siege of

Karlstein, Siege of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
434 words
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1

...the court of Prince Elector Friedrich of Hohenzollern, a principal opponent of the Hussites. Shortly after the arrival of Korybut (Sigmund Korybutowicz), nephew of Jagiełło, King of Poland, and the future Czech king, Prague troops along with the Polish army besieged Karlstein on 20 May 1422 . Besiegers were armed with heavy bombards; in spite of this the fortification system was not seriously damaged and attempts to capture the castle with the use of infantry failed as well. Hussites allegedly tried to force the surrender of the defenders of Karlstein by...

Erasmo da Narni

Erasmo da Narni (1370–1443)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
628 words
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1

...and Lake Garda in their vicinity. Particularly significant was the skillful withdrawal of his army from Brescia to Verona, through difficult and largely hostile territory, in September 1438 , and his participation in a daring operation that recovered Verona from Piccinino on 20 November 1439 . In January 1440 , Gattamelata suffered a stroke, and from then on he appears to have been out of active service, dying on 16 January 1443 . But in sickness, and even in death, Gattamelata can be seen as epitomizing the relations that Venice was trying to build up...

Bayeux Tapestry

Bayeux Tapestry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
696 words
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...Tapestry The Bayeux Tapestry, a monument of the Norman Conquest of England, is an embroidery of wool on linen, 68.38 meters (224 feet) long and about 50 centimeters (20 inches) high. Although documentation concerning its origin is lacking, general opinion is that it was created between 1066 and 1086 in southern England, although both Bayeux (in Normandy) and the Loire Valley have been argued as alternates. The visual narrative combines carefully chosen and edited events from the years 1064– 1066 , culminating in the battle of Hastings, in which William...

Bedford, Siege of

Bedford, Siege of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
647 words
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1

...Siege of The siege of Bedford castle during the minority of Henry III began on 20 June and ended on 15 August 1224 . At the heart of the contest, and the reason for the considerable resources thrown into the siege by the crown, lay the matter of royal authority; one historian, F. M. Powicke , has judged the siege “the most considerable military operation in the reign of Bedford Castle. Model of how the castle might have looked. A mound of earth is all that remains of the castle today. Courtesy Simon Speed Henry III.” It was important enough to...

Christianity

Christianity   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
707 words
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1

.... Woodbridge, U.K.: Boydell, 2003. Barber, R. The Knight and Chivalry . Woodbridge, U.K.: Boydell, 1995. Russell, F. H. The Just War in the Middle Ages . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1975. Shiels, W. J. , ed. The Church and War; Studies in Church History . Vol. 20. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983. Bernard...

Jena/Auerstadt, battles of

Jena/Auerstadt, battles of (1806)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
666 words
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1

...of French élan and Prussian command errors soon gave him enough room to deploy his troops as they came up. By late morning Hohenlohe realized that he was dealing with the main French army and did his best to concentrate to meet it. The turning point of the battle came when 20,000 Prussian infantry drew up outside the village of Vierzenheiligen, under merciless fire from French in the village, until, as Maj Gen Maude says: ‘In places the fronts of companies were marked only by individual files still loading and firing, while all their comrades lay dead...

Moscow, battle of

Moscow, battle of (1941)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
585 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to link up with them using airborne forces . The Red Army recaptured thousands of villages—crucial shelter in the cold—and the German salients north and south of the city were driven back. Airborne and cavalry corps penetrated the German rear areas, notably IV Airborne Corps on 20 January, near Vyazma. The Red Army pushed the German lines back 93–248 miles (150–400 km). In total, the Germans lost 500,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 2,500 guns, and 15,000 trucks—many of them immobilized by the cold. Compared with anything the Germans had experienced before, the scale...

Rouen, Siege of (1418–1419)

Rouen, Siege of (1418–1419)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,180 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and, through its position as the first bridging point on the river Seine, the key to Upper Normandy and the Paris basin. Henry arrived with his army on the eastern outskirts on 29 July. Twenty-four weeks later the city surrendered by composition, and Henry entered in triumph on 20 January 1419 . This was the longest siege of his conquest. Furthermore, Rouen was the largest place in France successfully besieged by the English during the whole of the Hundred Years’ War, holding at least twenty thousand civilians and soldiers (by the end of the fifteenth...

Korean War

Korean War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,292 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Group 96.8, the West Coast Support Group. In late August Shoalhaven was relieved by HMAS Warramunga , and for the remainder of the war the RAN maintained two destroyers or frigates on station in Korean waters. In October 1951 the aircraft-carrier HMAS Sydney (III) with the 20th Carrier Air Group replaced the British carrier HMS Glory , which sailed to Sydney for refit, returning to Korean waters in February the following year. This was the first (and only) active service deployment of Australia's newly developed carrier aviation capability. The Army...

missiles

missiles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...nuclear missiles effectively stalemated each other in the Cold War and their influence on the confrontation was actually quite limited. Tactical missiles with conventional warheads have in fact had a much greater influence on the conduct of warfare in the latter stages of the 20th century. Air war has been shaped markedly by the widespread introduction of missiles. The US Sidewinder, a supersonic guided missile, was the first air-to-air design to bring down an enemy aircraft. The US Navy's Phoenix air-to-air missile has a range of some 100 miles (161 km)....

Constantinople

Constantinople   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,506 words
Illustration(s):
2

...wall has around 2,500 casemates used by archers. The 96 towers were approximately 10 meters high and placed at the middle points between the towers of the old wall. The space between the two walls ( parateichon ) was used for patrol. In front of the outer wall is an open space of 20 meters ( peribolos ), followed by a moat 18 meters wide and at least 7 meters deep, which was filled with water. The moat is divided by several dams. The bridges over this obstacle were made of wood. On the inner side of the ditch was a crenellated balustrade for the first line of...

armour, body

armour, body   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,513 words
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1

...remained: both were retained into the 20th century as symbols of their wearer's status. Cuirasses are still worn by mounted bodyguards, such as the British Household Cavalry, and the gorget remained in some western countries, worn by both officers and, especially, military police . From the 1680s, functional body armour disappeared from the European battlefield, although it was retained in extra-European cultures, such as in India and in Japan—where it continued to have both a functional and formal role. Not until the 20th century did it reappear, first with...

Malayan Emergency

Malayan Emergency   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,667 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Australian ground forces arrived in Malaya, the outcome of the Emergency was no longer in doubt. The essential military and political struggle had been won, but there remained a long and wearying ‘clearing up’ stage to complete. Map 23: Malaya during the Emergency, 1948–60. Map 20 Australian involvement in the Emergency began in June 1950 when, in response to a request from the British government, six Lincolns of No. 1 (Bomber) Squadron, RAAF, and a flight of Dakotas from No. 38 (Transport) Squadron, RAAF, arrived in Singapore as part of the Far East Air...

Plunder, Division of

Plunder, Division of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
810 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the pay of a ruler owed all of its profits to him. In reality, such a system would have been unworkable, and a fair division was required. Looting. A group of soldiers plunder a house in Paris. Illustration from the Chroniques de France or Chroniques de Saint Denis , MS Roy 20 C VII, fol. 41v, fourteenth century. British Library, London, UK/© British Library Board. All Rights Reserved/The Bridgeman Art Library International .In Iberia, during the wars of the reconquista , elaborate procedures for the distribution of spoils were developed. In royal...

Acre, Siege of

Acre, Siege of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
929 words
Illustration(s):
1

...an iron-tipped battering ram with an armored roof, The garrison made a number of sorties against the crusaders’ lines, as on 2/3 September and 6 October. Neither side could gain the decisive upper hand before Richard and Philip’s arrival broke the stalemate. Philip disembarked on 20 April 1191 ; his relatively small force gave heart to the defenders. A French artillery assault at the end of May (probably the 30th) Shelley Reid was unsuccessful. Around the time of his arrival on 8 June (with a much more substantial contingent than Philip), Richard dealt a...

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