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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

The Sahel: Regional Politics and Dynamics

The Sahel: Regional Politics and Dynamics   Reference library

Sebastian Elischer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,858 words
Illustration(s):
2

...1.5 million Nigerien citizens suffer from chronic food shortages, and millions more experience transitory shortages during the lean season. Nearly 20% of the population cannot meet their food needs because of factors such as inadequate production, security constraints, and demographic growth. With an annual population growth of 3.8% the Nigerien population is set to double within the next 25 years. In Mauritania 20 years of drought have caused a profound demographic transformation in this country, which is 90% desert. The nomadic population has rapidly...

Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Total Number of Elections Held (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) Longest Sequence of Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account whether elections had consequences, that is, whether elections were subsequently annulled, or followed by a coup...

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa   Reference library

Adrienne LeBas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,154 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Studies , 20 , 516–541. Zolberg, A. (1966). Creating political order: The party-states of West Africa . Chicago, IL: Rand McNally. Notes 1. Exceptions are notable for their rarity. See Widner, 1992 . 2. As noted in the table, a few have not quite been in power 20 years, have suffered brief interruptions, or have lost a majority in parliament while retaining control of the executive. Adrienne LeBas 1. Exceptions are notable for their rarity. See Widner, 1992 . 2. As noted in the table, a few have not quite been in power 20 years, have...

Epistemic Communities

Epistemic Communities   Reference library

Peter M. Haas

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,846 words
Illustration(s):
4

...(October 2002). Cross, M. K. D. Security Integration in Europe . (Ann Arbor, Mich., 2011). Dasgupta, Partha , and Paul A. David “Toward a New Economics of Science.” Research Policy 23 (1994): 487–521. Dunlop, Claire . “Epistemic Communities: A Reply to Toke.” Politics 20, no. 3 (2000): 137–144. Galbraith, J. K. Economics Peace and Laughter . (Boston, 1971a). Galbraith, J. K. “How Keynes Came to America.” In Economics Peace and Laughter , pp. 43–59. (Boston, 1971b). Haas, Peter M. “When Does Power Listen to Truth? A Constructivist Approach...

Colonial Rule and Its Political Legacies in Africa

Colonial Rule and Its Political Legacies in Africa   Reference library

Amanda Lea Robinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,804 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Wotjer, 2015 ). Third, colonial endeavors were supported by Christian evangelists’ desires to “civilize” the continent, primarily through the establishment of missions. Cage and Rueda ( 2016 ) documented the extent of missionary investment, showing that by the beginning of the 20th century , there were over 700 different Protestant mission stations across the continent. This imperialist expansion culminated in the Scramble for Africa in the 1880s, and the Berlin Conference in late 1884 , at which European powers agreed on the conditions required for...

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Kate M. Carter and Scott Straus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,906 words
Illustration(s):
6

...at independence. In the Central African Republic, fighting between Séléka and anti-Balaka forces spread across the country in 2013 and 2014 . A fragile peace held until many of the former Séléka fighters splintered. By early 2018 , the government only controlled some 20% of the national territory, but the fractured nature of the armed groups in the Central African Republic is consistent with the broader patterns underlined in this article ( Losh, 2018 ). In short, the primary exceptions to a trend of declining civil war and weaker insurgencies...

Welfare Politics in Africa

Welfare Politics in Africa   Reference library

Jeremy Seekings

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,567 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cash transfers but ignores both the larger number of people who benefit from school and other food programs and the even larger number of people who benefit indirectly insofar as they share a household with a direct recipient. The World Bank’s most recent estimate is that about 20% of households across Africa benefit from some kind of social protection. There are also many people across Africa living in peasant households who benefit from agricultural subsidy programs that function much like social assistance, as the FAO ( 2017 ) has noted. The period in...

Experimental Research in African Politics

Experimental Research in African Politics   Reference library

George Kwaku Ofosu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,237 words
Illustration(s):
2

...challengers may use vote buying for different purposes. Therefore, theories should reflect this possibility. Similar to Vicente’s finding in STP, Kramon ( 2016b ) demonstrated that vote buying may be effective among Kenyan voters. Using a list survey experiment, Kramon found that 20% to 25% of a nationally representative sample of citizens agreed with the statement that they “voted for a party or politician because they gave you money during the campaign.” The list-survey results contrasted with results for the direct version of the sensitive question, wherein...

Comparative Analysis in African Politics

Comparative Analysis in African Politics   Reference library

Goran Hyden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,086 words
Illustration(s):
1

...politics—goes all the way back to the beginnings of the field of comparative politics as we know it today. In fact, Africa served as the prime focus for the pioneers as they embarked on defining the parameters and methods for comparative analysis in political science in the mid- 20th century . As new nation-states emerging from colonialism and embarking on modernization, African countries naturally attracted special interest in a discipline that was trying to free itself from an old-fashioned form of institutional analysis that was empirically tied to Western...

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics   Reference library

Dominic Burbidge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...with higher levels of income and explain how group activity is influential enough that by “increasing average membership by one-half group per household (or changing group characteristics to a similar degree) […] the estimates suggest that this would increase expected incomes by 20%–50%, which is an impressively large effect” ( Pritchett, 1999 , p. 274). Their path-breaking survey further suggests that social capital in rural Tanzania is “truly social ” (p. 273) because “there is an independent effect at the village level” not observed in individual...

Democracy Promotion in Africa

Democracy Promotion in Africa   Reference library

Oda van Cranenburgh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,399 words
Illustration(s):
1

...emphases characterize specific actors. Critiques on political party assistance include the short-term and electoral focus. Moreover, policies tended to be supply- or donor-driven, which also implies a top-down and external impetus for party development ( Burnell, 2006 , p. 20). Carothers ( 2006 ) shows that Western policymakers tend to follow a universal model in this field, disregarding differences in time, region, and context. The standard approach uses a “mythic” model of parties in the West ( Carothers, 2006 , p. 123). Moreover, it disregards...

The Politics of Language Education in Africa

The Politics of Language Education in Africa   Reference library

Russell H. Kaschula and Michael M. Kretzer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,237 words
Illustration(s):
2

...colonial language. There are 2,144 languages spoken in Africa. These consist of the Afro-Asiatic, the Austronesian, the Indo-European, the Niger-Congo, the Nilo-Saharan language family, and the Khoisan language cluster. Nearly all African countries were colonized until the mid- 20th century . Their language policies are therefore rooted and influenced by colonial origins. The former colonial countries used different approaches in governing their colonies. As a result, language policies, especially in education, differ significantly between anglophone,...

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism   Reference library

Jaimie Bleck and Nicolas van de Walle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,268 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the opposition—exacerbating the trust gap between ruling and opposition parties (p. 21). Support for the incumbent is not uniform across all voters. Logan ( 2009 ) offers some evidence that poor respondents are more likely to trust opposition parties than other respondents (p. 20). Cross-country analyses of Afrobarometer data demonstrate that those in the middle class are most likely to support the opposition ( Cheeseman, 2014 ); similarly, other studies have shown that urban voters are more likely to support opposition candidates ( Harding, 2010 ; ...

The Structure and Performance of African Electoral Commissions

The Structure and Performance of African Electoral Commissions   Reference library

Jørgen Elklit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,939 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Paper No. 21. University of Gothenburg, Varieties of Democracy Institute. Schulz-Herzenberg, C. (2014). Trends in electoral participation, 1994–2014. In C. Schulz-Herzenberg & R. Southall (Eds.), Election 2014 South Africa: The campaigns, results and future prospects (pp. 20–41). Auckland Park, South Africa: Jacana. Schulz-Herzenberg, C. (2016). South Africa. In N. Ndletyana (Ed.), Electoral management bodies in southern Africa: Comparative study of the electoral commissions’ contribution to electoral processes (pp. 259–288). Johannesburg, South...

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa   Reference library

Wilson Prichard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,764 words
Illustration(s):
3

...departments to establish that in Uganda in 2013–2014 only 13% of those registered to pay income taxes (excluding those for whom taxes are deducted from their salaries) actually made payments, less than one-third of the country’s largest importers paid any income taxes, only 20% of the country’s top lawyers had paid income taxes, and only 1 of 71 top-ranking government officials paid any income tax other than on their salaries, despite evidence of extensive real estate and business holdings ( Kangave et al., 2016 ). Similar examples of politicization are...

Slum Politics in Africa

Slum Politics in Africa   Reference library

Jacqueline M. Klopp and Jeffrey W. Paller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,872 words
Illustration(s):
5

...International Development , 48 (3), 240–262. Lindberg, S. I. (2010). What accountability pressures do MPs in Africa face and how do they respond? Evidence from Ghana. Journal of Modern African Studies , 48 (1), 117–142. Lines, K. , & Makau, J. (2018). Taking the long view: 20 years of Muungano wa Wanavijiji, the Kenyan federation of slum dwellers. Environment and Urbanization , 30 (2), 407–424. Lipset, S. M. (1959). Some social requisites of democracy: Economic development and political legitimacy. American Political Science Review , 53 (1),...

Organized Crime and Criminal Networks in Africa

Organized Crime and Criminal Networks in Africa   Reference library

Mark Shaw and Tuesday Reitano

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,650 words
Illustration(s):
1

...are better providers in terms of service delivery than the state is, and these groups often seem more legitimate and earn a greater degree of trust in the eyes of local populations ( Reitano & Hunter, 2016 ). The large informal economy in many African countries—ranging between 20% and 80% of total economic activity—contributes to this dynamic. State clientelism, rent-seeking, and impunity for graft further contribute to an economic free-for-all among the populations of certain countries and regions ( OECD/AFDB, 2018 ). Certain forms of criminal activity...

West, The

West, The   Reference library

Deena J. González

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,132 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Engagement Project, 2013 ) The 2012 general vote dramatized the point or difference in eligible turnout between Latino/as and non-Latino/as. The brief notes that the “2012 Latino eligible turnout was only 39.4%, while eligible non-Latinos turned out at a rate of 57.3%—an almost 20 percentage point disparity in electoral participation for Latinos. Latino and non-Latino eligible turnout both steadily increased over the decade, until 2012 .” By 2012 , the Latino/a eligible turnout rate declined from 2008 ’s highest mark of 44.9 percent. This is the result of...

Marielitos

Marielitos   Reference library

Félix Masud-Piloto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,053 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a public announcement encouraging people willing to emigrate to go to the Peruvian Embassy. Within forty-eight hours, more than ten thousand asylum-seekers crowded into the embassy grounds. A group of Cubans wait to embark aboard a boat to US shores at the port in Mariel Harbor, 20 miles west of Havana, Cuba, in May 1980 . ap photo / prensa latina via ap images / joaquin vinas In an angry response to the unexpectedly large crowd congregated at the embassy, the Cuban government labeled those who accepted the offer to emigrate “antisocial,” “criminals,”...

Justice for Janitors

Justice for Janitors   Reference library

Linda Heidenreich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
912 words
Illustration(s):
1

...University Janitors Vote to Ratify New Contract Agreement.” http://www.seiu.org/2011/11/harvard-janitors-vote-to-support-ratification-of-c.php . Service Employees International Union . Justice for Janitors. http://www.seiu.org/a/justice-for-janitors/justice-for-janitors-20-years-of-organizing.php . Linda...

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