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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,644 words
Illustration(s):
1

...G-20, or a similar inclusive group, was likely to emerge as the premier forum of international economic dialogue, policy coordination, and decision making even beyond the crisis. A formal declaration to that effect was made at the third G-20 summit in Pittsburgh, USA, in 2009. G-20 leaders will now meet each year at the summit level. The bigger EMEs have now become too systemically important to be excluded from any meaningful or effective international economic consultative process to manage globalization. India is one of the bigger economies within the G-20....

annualized percentage rate of interest

annualized percentage rate of interest   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...0) and £120 in two years’ time, and is repaid with five biannual payments of £50 beginning six months from now. The APR, denoted by r , is then defined as the solution to 120 ( 1 + r ) 0 + 120 ( 1 + r ) 2 = 50 ( 1 + r ) 0.5 + 50 ( 1 + r ) 1.0 + 50 ( 1 + r ) 1.5 + 50 ( 1 + r ) 2.0 + 50 ( 1 + r ) 2.5 . The APR in this case is r = 0.082 (8.2 per cent). Where a loan is repaid in instalments and the nominal interest rate is expressed as a percentage of the original capital, the APR may be considerably higher than the nominal interest rate. In the UK lenders are...

Slater, Samuel

Slater, Samuel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
949 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., who was a noted worker in wood, and David Wilkinson , who was skilled in the shaping of iron, to produce machines that transformed raw cotton into finished yarn of superior quality. The first cotton mill in America successfully to use the Arkwright machines began operations on 20 December 1790 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. The machines soon were producing so much yarn that Almy and Brown were swamping the market. Drawing from his British past, Slater developed a factory system (later known as the Rhode Island System) based upon the customary patterns of the...

Rice Farming

Rice Farming   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,824 words
Illustration(s):
1

...below this level, yields are quickly reduced. So irrigation is the best system of growing rice and makes it possible to grow rice continuously on the same land. More than 75 percent of the world's rice is “wet rice” from irrigated fields, most of which are in Asia. Nearly another 20 percent of world rice production comes from lowland areas, where rice is only watered by rainfall. The remaining 5 percent comes partly from rain-fed hill areas and partly from swampy, flooded areas. To provide irrigation, terracing has been built in Java, Sri Lanka, Japan, and...

Chrysler, Walter

Chrysler, Walter   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
608 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of an Automotive Genius . New York, 2000. Edsforth, Ronald . Walter Percy Chrysler. In American National Biography , edited by John Garraty , vol. 4, 859–861. New York, 1999. Fox, Steven . I Like to Build Things . American Heritage of Inventions and Technology 15.1 (1999), 20–30. Wayne...

Coffee

Coffee   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,273 words
Illustration(s):
1

...widely taken psychoactive drug, and it provides a livelihood (of sorts) for over 20 million people. The daily wage of the average coffee laborer would purchase one cup of coffee in a trendy coffee bar in the developed world. From its original natural home on the mountainsides of Ethiopia, coffee's cultivation has spread in a girdle around the globe in some fifty countries between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. It is a small understory tree that grows to approximately 20 feet if unpruned, with a brief, mildly aromatic white blossom, followed by the...

Mexico City

Mexico City   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
991 words
Illustration(s):
1

...District (Distrito Federal), which includes all of Mexico City proper, and 8.3 million lived in thirty four contiguous municipalities in the State of Mexico. The MCMA thus represented 18.4 percent of Mexico's 1995 total population of 91.2 million. The MCMA produces roughly 20 percent of the nation's manufactured goods. Its inhabitants earn more than 30 percent of the national income. M exico C ity . Rush hour at a subway station, 1985. (© Stephanie Maze/Woodfin Camp and Associates, New York) Originally called Tenochtitlán, Mexico was founded in 1325...

Measuring Health Utility in Economics

Measuring Health Utility in Economics   Reference library

José Luis Pinto Prades, Arthur Attema, and Fernando Ignacio Sánchez Martínez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,224 words
Illustration(s):
9

...using the duration of 10 years, this value of p was denoted as p 10 and for the medicine using the duration of 20 years as p 20 . Respondents were also asked to make a choice between two medicines (gambles), the medicine with their p 10 probability of full health for 10 years and the medicine with their p 20 probability of full health for 20 years. Choosing the medicine with the duration of 20 years, while preferring 10 years to 20 years in the first choice, constitutes a preference reversal. Stalmeier and Verheijen observed preference reversals in...

Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,397 words
Illustration(s):
2

...largest market share. In the 1970s LWRs became dominant. In 1999 these plants generated over 75 percent of the electricity in France and Lithuania, about 20 percent in the United Kingdom and the United States, and less than 5 percent in China and India. Although costs vary between technologies and across countries, approximately 60 percent of total cost is for plant construction, 20 percent for fuel, and 20 percent for operations and maintenance (see, for example, NEA, 1998 ). National Programs Each country developed nuclear power under a unique set of...

The Economics of Informal Care

The Economics of Informal Care   Reference library

Courtney Van Houtven, Fiona Carmichael, Josephine Jacobs, and Peter C. Coyte

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,943 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a reason for kinks and discontinuities in the relationship between caregiving and working, given that even if a part-time worker wants to adjust from 30 hours a week to 24 it may be difficult to work 24 hours if the employer defines part-time status as 20 hours a week. Thus, a caregiver may have to drop to 20 hours of work if she wants to continue working. A consensus has emerged in the literature that suggests that (1) a wide range of LMOs, such as labor force participation (LFP), hours of work, and hourly wages, is inversely related to caregiving in general...

Guggenheim Family

Guggenheim Family   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
798 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1937 and later housed in a stunning building designed by Frank Lloyd Wright . Bibliography Davis, J. H. The Guggenheims . New York, 1988. Glaser-Schmidt, Elisabeth . The Guggenheims and the Coming of the Great Depression in Chile, 1923–1934 . Business and Economic History 20.1 (1995), 176–185. Hoyt, Edwin P. , Jr. The Guggenheims and the American Dream . New York, 1967. Lomask, Milton . Seed Money: The Guggenheim Story . New York, 1964. O'Brien, Thomas F. Rich beyond the Dreams of Avarice: The Guggenheims in Chile . Business History Review 63.1...

Lewis, John L.

Lewis, John L.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
864 words
Illustration(s):
1

...days as a response. Speaking before Congress, Lewis blamed its members for the tragedy and defended the coal miners' strike. Lewis failed to comply with a court order to resume negotiations with mine operators in 1948 , which resulted in a $1.5 million fine on the UMW and a $20,000 fine on Lewis personally. Despite these setbacks, the late 1940s were rewarding for Lewis and brought one of his greatest achievements, the establishment of the Welfare and Retirement Fund. The fund was designed to help the sick and the aged and to improve working...

Cotton

Cotton   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,974 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Cotton , the seed-hair fiber from a variety of plants of the genus Gossypium . The plant produces seedpods, known as cotton bolls. Seed hairs, or fibers, grow from the skin of the seedpod, which bursts open when it is ripe. The plant grows up to 6 meters (18 to 20 feet) high, although usually it is closer to 1 to 2 meters (3 to 6 feet) in height. Each growing region produces cotton fibers of a different staple length (the average length of the fibers). The longest, most lustrous fibers are grown in the Nile Delta of Egypt, in Brazil, on the Sea Islands off South...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,842 words
Illustration(s):
1

...approach of modern growth theories. Berend, T. Iván , and György Ránki . Hungary: A Century of Economic Development . New York, 1974. Draskóczi, István , János Buza , Zoltán Kaposi , György Kövér , and János Honvári . Magyarország gazdaságtörténete a honfoglalástól a 20. század közepéig , edited by János Honvári . Budapest, 1996. The latest summary of the economic history of the country in Hungarian. The main chapters were written by specialists of different periods; consequently the concept has been based on eclectic points of view. Engel, Pál ....

Sheep and Goats

Sheep and Goats   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,035 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the spring, thus allowing it to be prepared for cropping on the basis of a “field-grass” husbandry. This system prevented soil erosion by retaining water residue over the summer in the root systems of the extensive grass cover, and it allowed a spatially limited but high-yield (20–30:1 in contrast to the northern European 4:1) agriculture to be practiced. It was complemented by the husbandry practices of the peasant villagers on the fringes on the dry plain, who supplemented their incomes by providing harvest-time labor on the great latifundia. They also...

Poland

Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,674 words
Illustration(s):
1

...inhabitants by the end of the sixteenth century and, between 70,000 and 100,000 in the first half of the seventeenth century. Warsaw's population rose from 6,000 in the sixteenth century to 20,000 to 30,000 in the middle of the seventeenth century. Kraków had a population of 28,000; Poznań, 20,000; Toruń, 12,000; Elblag, 15,000; Lublin, 8,000 to 10,000; and Lwów, about 20,000. There were 148 towns with between 600 and 2,000 inhabitants, while there were 567 boroughs with 500 to 600 inhabitants. About 75 percent of all towns were founded and owned by magnates...

Unemployment

Unemployment   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,360 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 8.7 5.6 1950–63 4.8 2.6 3.8 1.9 6.1 4.7 1.9 2.1 3.6 1.7 2.1 1964–73 4.5 3.0 0.8 2.2 5.5 4.8 1.2 1.8 2.3 2.0 2.6 1974–79 6.7 5.0 3.2 4.5 6.6 7.2 1.9 5.0 6.3 1.9 5.2 1980–89 7.3 9.8 5.8 8.8 8.0 9.4 2.5 7.6 9.8 2.6 17.5 1990–98 5.9 8.5 7.4 11.2 10.5 9.8 2.9 9.0 8.7 7.3 20.3 S ources : 1900–13 (a): For U.S., Lebergott, 1964, p. 512, unemployment rate for nonfarm employees. For U.K., Feinstein, 1972, Table 57, pp. T125–126. For...

Price Regulation and Pharmaceuticals

Price Regulation and Pharmaceuticals   Reference library

A. McGuire

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,409 words
Illustration(s):
1

...form a significant part of healthcare expenditure in most countries. Across the OECD countries, pharmaceutical expenditure accounts for approximately 20% of total healthcare spending, with consumption increasing recently largely due to population aging and an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, although this varies greatly, with around 12% of total health spending in the larger economies to over 20% of spending in the smaller countries. Pharmaceutical prices have largely stabilized recently, due in part to increased regulation. At least a third of...

Unions

Unions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,618 words
Illustration(s):
1

...employer opposition. They were notable for fragmentation between Marxist, anticommunist, Catholic, and others. Trade union density fell from 20 percent in the mid-1970s to about 9 percent in the late 1980s. In Spain, trade unionism developed after the death of Francisco Franco in 1975 , with the two largest unions having 2.6 million members in 1978 , and an overall density of about 40 to 45 percent. This fell to about 20 percent in 1982 and below 15 percent by the early 1990s. To the general causes of decline of the heavily unionized industrial sectors and...

Famines

Famines   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,749 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to 8 million, while those of deaths from the Chinese Great Leap Forward famine range from 15 to 43 million. Claims that the Chinese famine was the largest in history gloss over uncertainties about its true toll, and ignore estimates of 20 to 30 million deaths from famine in China between 1876 and 1900 and a further 12 to 20 million deaths in India over the same period. Twentieth-century famines were for the most part “small.” Most famine victims die not of literal starvation but of infectious diseases, such as typhoid fever, typhus, malaria, and dysentery....

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