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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

synapse

synapse n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Psychiatry
Length:
209 words
Illustration(s):
1

...are relayed, usually by a neurotransmitter , from the axon of a presynaptic neuron to the axon, dendrite, or cell body of a postsynaptic neuron, or sometimes from the dendrite of one to the dendrite of another, a typical synapse consisting of a synaptic cleft approximately 20 nanometres (millionths of a millimetre) wide into which the neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic neuron, triggering an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron if the sum of all the signals reaching the postsynaptic neuron reaches a critical...

attention, neural basis

attention, neural basis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,590 words
Illustration(s):
5

...as during directed attention in the presence of visual stimulation, consisting of the FEF, the SEF, and the SPL (Fig. A20a, b). As in visual cortical areas, there is an increase in activity in these frontal and parietal areas due to directed attention in the absence of visual input. However, (1) this increase in activity is stronger in SPL, FEF, and SEF than the increase in activity seen in visual cortex (as exemplified for FEF in Fig. A20c), and (2) there is no further increase in activity evoked by the attended stimulus presentations in these parietal and...

after‐effects, perceptual

after‐effects, perceptual   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,772 words
Illustration(s):
2

...constitutes a gender‐neutral face, and the two photographs on either side of the neutral face are versions biased toward female (left) and toward male (right). Maintain fixation on the right‐hand photograph for 20 s or so and then look at the middle photograph—for the first few seconds, it should look more ‘female’. Next, adapt for 20 s to the left‐hand photograph and notice how the appearance of the gender‐neutral face now looks more ‘male’. Photographs courtesy of Tamara Watson and Colin Clifford, University of Sydney. Perceptual after‐effects may...

hair cells

hair cells   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
587 words
Illustration(s):
1

...controls the release of neurotransmitter from the hair cell and this influences the rate at which action potentials are sent along the (post-synaptic) afferent nerve fibre to higher brain centres. Although hair cell stereocilia are deflected at acoustic frequencies (up to 20 kHz in humans), the electrical properties of the hair cell membrane smooth the rapidly changing potential to a slower rate which can be transmitted by the nerve axons to the brain. Thus information about which hair cell has been stimulated is carried by a specific set of nerve...

localization of brain function and cortical maps

localization of brain function and cortical maps   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,354 words
Illustration(s):
1

... George Coombe had observed similar patients in the 1830s and noted that the exposed brain swelled and reddened when the patient became excited. Coombe had stumbled on changes in cerebral blood flow in relation to particular mental activity, which formed the basis of late 20th-century functional neuroimaging, whereby the localized changes in blood flow that correlate with particular mental events can be registered and pinpointed from outside the head. Much later, in 1950 , W. G. Penfield and Theodore Rasmussen published the results of similar...

perspective

perspective   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,844 words
Illustration(s):
7

...for mathematical treatises were attempted unsuccessfully by Piero della Francesca and Leonardo da Vinci in the late 1400s, but none appeared in art works until an isolated example by Tiepolo in 1744 . The three-point construction seems to have been first introduced into 20th-century art by Georgia O'Keeffe in her New York Series in the mid-1920s. Far from springing into force during the early Renaissance, therefore, a full understanding of linear perspective was not achieved for 600 years. Interestingly, most of the conceptual advances in...

tilted room

tilted room   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,764 words
Illustration(s):
2

...pure effects of motion by sitting people at the centre of a 3-metre-diameter sphere lined with dots. Continuous rotation of the sphere at 30 degrees about the roll axis induced an illusion of continuous self-rotation accompanied by a paradoxical sensation of being tilted by up to 20 degrees (Howard and Childerson 1994 ). Since a sphere contains no visual information about the direction of gravity these illusions must have been induced by visual motion alone. We then added a visual frame by placing people in a rotating cubic room. This also produced illusory...

computer chess

computer chess   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,324 words
Illustration(s):
4

...to learn from experience. Yet the final of the 1985 North American computer chess championship, in which Hans Berliner's ‘Hitech’ defeated Robert Hyatt's ‘Cray Blitz’, was recognizably master level. Both programs searched 20–30 million look-ahead positions per move. The equivalent figure for de Groot's grandmasters was 20–30 positions. Further annual tournaments led to the creation in 1988 of Deep Thought by a team of Carnegie Mellon University graduate students including Feng-Hsiung Hsu and Murray Campbell . In that same year the program became...

deduction

deduction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,219 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Critique of Pure Reason . But it is here also that the seeds are sown of the fundamental revisions both in logic and in conceptions of the nature and structure of thought which were brought about as a result of the work of Gottlob Frege and others working in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For Kant, in spite of his use of a very traditional Aristotelian framework for the construction of his table of judgements, (i) places primary emphasis on judgements as cognitive acts, rather than on ideas as the referents of general terms, and (ii) sees judgement as a...

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
8,888 words
Illustration(s):
16

...Nervous System , trans. R. May (OUP 1928). Sometimes the neuron-to-neuron contacts or synapses , as they are termed, are highly organized junctions allowing an extremely close approach between the two cells so that they are separated only by a very narrow gap or cleft (typically 20 nanometres wide) (Figs. 2 and 3). In this case, neurotransmitters are delivered at a very precise location when their secretion is triggered by the incoming nerve-terminal. In other cases, the axon produces long chains of swellings (so-called varicosities ) towards its terminal...

brain imaging

brain imaging   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,752 words
Illustration(s):
4

...brain is the origin of our mental life, but only recently has it become possible to study the relationship between brain and mind in humans in any detail. The change has come about largely through the development of non-invasive brain-imaging techniques in the last quarter of the 20th century. Before these developments our knowledge was either indirect, from experiments in animals, or came from the study of patients who had sustained damage to circumscribed brain regions as result of tumours, strokes, or accidents. Even in these cases it was not easy to know...

hearing

hearing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,446 words
Illustration(s):
4

...cycles per second, is the frequency. The unit of one cycle per second is called the hertz (abbreviated Hz). The Greenwich time signal has a frequency of 1,000 Hz. The highest frequency we can hear varies from 16,000 to 20,000 Hz in young adults, but tends to decrease with increasing age. The lowest frequency which is heard as sound is about 20 Hz. Below that the pressure changes are felt as a vibration rather than heard as sound. We are most sensitive to frequencies around 1,800 Hz. Sine waves, or pure tones, are particularly important in the study of hearing....

art and visual abstraction

art and visual abstraction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
6

...of neuronal columns in visual cortex areas for information about contours and angles of certain orientations. In the orientation columns the retinal image is abstracted into linear contours similar to b. Fig. 2. Contoured representations of the human body from the 13th and the 20th centuries. The examples show opposite contrasts: black on white ( a ) and white on black ( b ). a. Medieval drawing of a sitting man in Villard d'Honnecourt's sketch-book ( c. 1230). It is limited mainly to the body contour with a few added lines indicating muscles and ribs....

gestalt theory

gestalt theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,784 words
Illustration(s):
1

...theory The Gestalt School of psychological thought originated in Germany early in the 20th century (for a comprehensive review, see Koffka 1935 ). It is best known for its theoretical and empirical contributions to understanding the organization of perceptual experience, including the nature of perceived groups, objects, parts, properties, and the relations among them, but was extended to address issues concerning problem solving (e.g. Köhler 1925 ) and social psychology (e.g. Lewin 1951 ). Before the advent of gestalt theory, ideas about...

global workspace theory

global workspace theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,622 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Science , 6. —— and Franklin, S. (2003). ‘ How conscious experience and working memory interact ’. Trends in Cognitive Science , 7. —— —— (2007). ‘ An architectural model of conscious and unconscious brain functions: global workspace theory and IDA ’. Neural Networks , 20. Dehaene, S. and Naccache, L. (2001). ‘ Towards a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness: basic evidence and a workspace framework ’. Cognition , 79. ——, Changeux, J. P. , Naccache, L. , Sackur, J. , Sergent, C. (2006). ‘ Conscious, preconscious, and subliminal...

neuronal global workspace

neuronal global workspace   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,770 words
Illustration(s):
1

...dendritic trees, and very long axons are denser in some areas than in others. In all primates, prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices, together with the superior temporal sulcus, are closely interlinked by a dense network of long‐distance connections. At the beginning of the 20th century, Von Economo already noted that these regions are characterized by a thick layer of large pyramidal cells, particularly in cortical layers II and III, that send and receive long‐distance projections, including through the corpus callosum. From these observations,...

dementia

dementia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,608 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of anosognosia for memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease: a review of the literature and a proposed model ’. Aging and Mental Health , 2. Klein, S. B. , Rozendal, K. , and Cosmides, L. (2002). ‘ A social‐cognitive neuroscience analysis of the self ’. Social Cognition , 20. Piolino, P. , Desgranges, B. , Belliard, S. et al. (2003). ‘ Autobiographical memory and autonoetic consciousness: triple dissociation in neurodegenerative diseases ’. Brain , 126. Rankin, K. P. , Baldwin, E. , Pace‐Savitsky, C. , Kramer, J. H. , and Miller, B. L. (2005)....

children's understanding of the physical world

children's understanding of the physical world   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,843 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Bruce Hood Baillargeon, R. (1995). ‘A model of physical reasoning in infancy’. In Rovee-Collier, C. , and Lipsett, L. (eds.), Advances in Infancy Research , vol. ix. ——  Spelke, E. S. , and Wasserman, S. (1985). ‘ Object permanence in 5-month-old infants’. Cognition , 20. Hood, B. M. (1995). ‘ Gravity rules for 2–4 year-olds? ’ Cognitive Development , 10. —— (1998). ‘ Gravity does rule for falling events ’. Developmental Science , 1. Karmiloff-Smith, A. , and Inhelder, B. (1975). ‘ If you want to get ahead, get a theory ’. Cognition , 3....

emotion

emotion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,976 words
Illustration(s):
1

...emotional states. Ancient Greek and later Western philosophers have always discussed emotion, although the emphasis has almost exclusively been on its cognitive evaluation. Cognition and emotion have been regarded as separate areas, and subsequently, for the larger part of the 20th century, most scientific research focused on cognition at the expense of emotion. Notwithstanding, important theoretical advances were made by pioneering individuals such as Charles Darwin ( 1872 ) who examined the evolution of emotional responses and facial expressions ....

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,982 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by the identification of specific genetic determinants of the phenotypic variability. 2. Clinical diagnosis The concept of dementia has evolved in recent years from the rather non-specific notion of an organic brain syndrome to a more specific concept. During the first half of the 20th century, all mental disorders of the elderly were considered as different manifestations of senile degeneration of the brain. At that time, nobody had associated the various symptoms of dementia, depression, and paranoia with any particular brain pathology. To do this,...

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