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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

pack years

pack years   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
79 words
Illustration(s):
1

...years a measure of a person’s cumulative cigarette consumption over a long period of time. It is expressed as the number of packs (assuming 20 cigarettes in a pack) smoked per day multiplied by the number of years of smoking: number of pack years = (packs [or cigarettes/20] smoked per day) × (years smoking) . For example, a patient who has smoked 15 cigarettes a day for 40 years has a (15/20) × 40 = 30 pack-year smoking...

bronchus

bronchus n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
63 words
Illustration(s):
1

... n. ( pl. bronchi ) any of the air passages beyond the trachea (windpipe) that has cartilage and mucous glands in its wall (see illustration). The trachea divides into two main bronchi, which divide successively into five lobar bronchi , 20 segmental bronchi , and two or three more divisions. See also bronchiole . — bronchial adj. Bronchus. The bronchi and their principal (lobar)...

capillary

capillary n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
66 words
Illustration(s):
1

... n. an extremely narrow blood vessel, approximately 5–20 μ ‎m in diameter. Capillaries form networks in most tissues; they are supplied with blood by arterioles and drained by venules. The vessel wall is only one cell thick, which enables exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, salts, etc., between the blood and the tissues (see illustrations). Capillary. A network of capillaries (above); a single capillary...

breast

breast n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
106 words
Illustration(s):
1

... n. 1. the mammary gland of a woman: one of two compound glands that produce milk. Each breast consists of glandular lobules – the milk-secreting areas – embedded in fatty tissue (see illustration). The milk passes from the lobules into ducts, which join up to form 15–20 lactiferous ducts . Near the front of the breast the lactiferous ducts are dilated into ampullae , which act as reservoirs for the milk. Each lactiferous duct discharges through a separate orifice in the nipple. The dark area around the nipple is called the areola . See also ...

dentition

dentition n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
153 words
Illustration(s):
2

... n. the arrangement of teeth in the mouth. The primary dentition comprises the teeth of young children. It consists of 20 teeth, made up of incisors, canines, and molars only. The lower incisor erupts first at about 6 months of age, and all the primary teeth have usually erupted by the age of 2½ years. The lower incisors are shed first at about 6 years of age, and from this time until about 13 years old both primary and permanent teeth are present; i.e. there is a mixed dentition . The permanent dentition consists of up to 32 teeth, made up of...

Units of alcohol

Units of alcohol   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
514 words
Illustration(s):
3

...(250 ml) 3.3 Bottle (750 ml) 9.8 14% Small glass (125 ml) 1.75 Standard glass (175 ml) 2.5 Large glass (250 ml) 3.5 Bottle (750 ml) 10.5 Shots: tequila, sambuca 40% Small shot (25 ml) 1 Large shot (35 ml) 1.3 Alcopops Normal (5%) Bottle (275 ml) 1.4 Fortified wine: port, sherry 20% Standard (50 ml) 1 Spirits: gin, rum, vodka, whisky 40% Small (25 ml) 1 Large single (35 ml) 1.4 Double (50 ml) 2 Large double (70 ml)...

Physical Activity and Sleep

Physical Activity and Sleep   Reference library

Sayaka Aritake-Okada and Sunao Uchida

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
6,110 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with sleep problems, because many systematic reviews about the topic showed the effects on good sleepers are not clinically significant. A study by Passos et al. ( 2010 ) on insomniac patients showed that acute moderate-intensity physical activity shortened sleep latency (near 20-minute reduction), reduced nocturnal awakenings (15-minute reduction), increased total sleep time (50-minute increase), and increased sleep efficiency (8% increase) during nocturnal sleep ( Passos et al., 2010 ) . They also revealed that 6 months of chronic moderate aerobic...

Physical Activity and Stress Reactivity

Physical Activity and Stress Reactivity   Reference library

Stephen H. Boutcher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
10,759 words
Illustration(s):
1

...was small the relationship was clinically meaningful. For example, Chida and Steptoe ( 2010 ) suggest that people with high reactivity BP scores would have a 23% increase in risk of developing hypertension. In the Framingham study, after a follow-up of 34 years, an increase of 20 mmHg in resting systolic BP was associated with a 25% increase in carotid stenosis ( Lovallo, 2010 ). In summary, it seems that BP reactivity is a consistent independent predictor of future hypertension status when long-term follow-ups are conducted in adults and adolescents. Delayed...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa   Reference library

Clinton Gahwiler, Lee Hill, and Valérie Grand’Maison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., 20 (4–2), 1564–1571. Ramtohul, R. (2010). The gendered dimension of competitive sports in a multicultural context: The Mauritian scenario . In J. Shehu (Eds.), Gender, Sport, and Development in Africa: Cross-cultural Perspectives on Patterns of Representations and Marginalization (pp. 95–109). Codesria. . Rejeski, W. J. , & Brawley, L. R. (1988). Defining the boundaries of sport psychology. Sport Psychologist, 2 , 231–242. Rhodes, R. E. , & Nasuti, G. (2011). Trends and changes in research on the psychology of physical activity across 20...

A Holistic and Mental Health Perspective on Transitioning Out of Elite Sport

A Holistic and Mental Health Perspective on Transitioning Out of Elite Sport   Reference library

Paul Wylleman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
5,852 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by factors such as the degree of preparation and voluntariness for ending one’s athletic career (e.g., Alfermann & Gross, 1997 ; McPherson, 1980 ; Webb, Nasco, Riley, & Headrick, 1998 ; Wheeler et al., 1996 ). Significantly, research also suggested that approximately 20% of elite athletes may experience psychological problems in relation to their retirement ( Lavallee et al., 2000 ). With athletic retirement in the 1990s being conceptualized as a process of transition resulting “in a change in assumptions about oneself and the world and thus requires...

The Roles of Psychological Stress, Physical Activity, and Dietary Modifications on Cardiovascular Health Implications

The Roles of Psychological Stress, Physical Activity, and Dietary Modifications on Cardiovascular Health Implications   Reference library

Chun-Jung Huang, Matthew J. McAllister, and Aaron L. Slusher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
12,608 words
Illustration(s):
2

...this study with young adults cannot be assumed to transfer to adult populations. Given this limitation, longer intervention periods utilizing various aerobic exercise protocols may be more relevant in today’s society. A study by von Haaren and colleagues ( 2016 ) indicated that 20 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise at moderate intensity reduces the effects of psychological stress on the autonomic nervous system exhibited by enhanced parasympathetic tone and suggests that long-term aerobic exercise is sufficient to attenuate adverse physiological responses...

Sociocultural Aspects of Sport Injury and Recovery

Sociocultural Aspects of Sport Injury and Recovery   Reference library

Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
12,308 words
Illustration(s):
1

...several elite gymnastics coaches, and the sport governing body of USA Gymnastics have all been accused of enablement and complicity in covering up knowledge of the sexual abuse of youth athletes during treatments for sports injuries by this physician over a period of over 20 years ( Barr & Murphy, 2018 ; Green, 2017 ). Athletes and parents attempting to report and remedy the abuse were allegedly silenced via a range of social influences, including pressure from sport authorities, clubs, coaches, athletic trainers, institutions, and organizations....

Psychological Considerations of Adolescents in Sport and Performance

Psychological Considerations of Adolescents in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Katherine A. Tamminen and Courtney Braun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
14,022 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(i.e., burnout occurs when athletes feel “entrapped” in the sport rather than wanting to participate). Figure 1. Integrated model of athlete burnout (from Gustafsson, Kenttä, & Hassmén, 2011 ). Reprinted with permission by Taylor & Francis, http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rirs20/current . One important factor that has been associated with burnout among adolescent athletes is perfectionism, which is defined as a multidimensional trait or disposition consisting of a combination of exceedingly high standards and a preoccupation with extreme self-critical evaluation...

Psychological Considerations for Physical Activity Participants With Intellectual Disabilities

Psychological Considerations for Physical Activity Participants With Intellectual Disabilities   Reference library

Yeshayahu Hutzler and Joelle Almosni

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
8,308 words
Illustration(s):
4

...self-determination of behavior . Psychological Inquiry , 11 , 227–268. Draheim, C. C. , Williams, D. P. , & McCubbin, J. A. (2003). Cardiovascular disease risk factor differences between Special Olympians and non–Special Olympians. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly , 20 , 118–133. Farrell, R. J. , Crocker, P. R. E. , McDonough, M. H. , & Sedgwick, W. A. (2004). The driving force: Motivation in Special Olympians. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly , 21 , 153–168. Fernhall, B. , Pitetti, K. H. , Rimmer, J. H. , McCubbin, J. A. , Rintala...

Sport Psychology Considerations in Intercollegiate Athletics in the United States

Sport Psychology Considerations in Intercollegiate Athletics in the United States   Reference library

Christopher M. Bader and Scott B. Martin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
9,621 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in compliance with NCAA rules regarding the number of allowable coaches, the time spent in these sessions must be included in the weekly allotment of hours for practice and team meetings (i.e., 4 hours daily or 20 hours per week). General support services such as advisement, personal counseling, career counseling, and tutoring are exempt from the 20 hour per week regulation (see NCAA, 2015 ). Thus, to reduce the risk of rule violations, SPCs should regularly interact with individuals in the athletic department such as the compliance officers, who can help...

Psychological Resilience and Adversarial Growth in Sport and Performance

Psychological Resilience and Adversarial Growth in Sport and Performance   Reference library

David Fletcher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
15,149 words
Illustration(s):
1

...posttraumatic growth. Journal of Humanistic Psychology July 9, 2017, advance online publication. Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely adverse events? American Psychologist , 59 , 20–28. Bonanno, G. A. , Romero, S. A. , & Klein, S. I. (2015). The temporal elements of psychological resilience: An integrative framework for the study of individuals, families, and communities. Psychological Inquiry: An International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological...

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Gershon Tenenbaum and Edson Filho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,421 words
Illustration(s):
5

...was once limited to the terms and scales that measured perception of exertion (Borg’s scales, which have dominated the field since 1960 ; for a review, see Razon, Hutchinson, & Tenenbaum, 2012 ). Borg distinguished between rating scales and ratio scales, and used a range of 6 to 20 with semantics varying in exertion level for rating scales, and 0 to 10 for ratio scales. Borg ( 1998 ) assumed that the term exertion encompasses a gestalt perspective where feelings such as pain and fatigue are embedded with the term exertion. Thus, all the scales were...

Psychological Considerations for Children and Adolescents in Sport and Performance

Psychological Considerations for Children and Adolescents in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Mary Fry and Candace M. Hogue

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
10,098 words
Illustration(s):
1

...aggressive tendencies among soccer players. Journal of Moral Education , 31 , 67–85. Hall, H. K. , Kerr, A. W. , & Matthews, J. (1998). Precompetitive anxiety in sport: The contribution of achievement goals and perfectionism. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology , 20 , 194–217. Hall, M. S. , Newland, A. , Newton, M. , Podlog, L. , & Baucom, B. R. (2017). Perceptions of the social psychological climate and sport commitment in adolescent athletes: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology , 29 , 75–87. Harwood, C. , Cumming...

Characteristics, Mechanisms, and Health Implications of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia

Characteristics, Mechanisms, and Health Implications of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia   Reference library

Laura D. Ellingson and Christopher D. Black

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
9,381 words
Illustration(s):
1

...this has not been definitively demonstrated ( Vaegter et al., 2014 ). Most EIH research has been conducted using healthy college-aged men and women. One study using healthy veterans of the first Gulf War and those with chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain, who were about 20 years older than the average college student (~40 years old), reported a hyper algesic response for sick veterans and no change in pain sensitivity for healthy veterans ( Cook et al., 2010 ). It is plausible that the lack of EIH for the healthy veterans was due to a reduction in...

Multicultural Sport Psychology’s Consulting Role in the United States Activist-Athlete Movement

Multicultural Sport Psychology’s Consulting Role in the United States Activist-Athlete Movement   Reference library

Jessica L. David, Jesse A. Steinfeldt, I. S. Keino Miller, and Jacqueline E. Hyman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
8,701 words
Illustration(s):
2

...movement across all ranks within the United States (i.e., youth sports, college, and professional; Wolverton, 2016 ; see Figure 1 ). Figure 1. Washington Redskins kneeling during the national anthem on September 24, 2017. Photo by Keith Allison, reproduced under CC-BY-SA 2.0 license. It is important to note that this was not Kaepernick’s first demonstration. He regularly posted content on social media inspired by James Baldwin and Malcolm X the year prior to his protest, and he also sat during the national anthem in the San Francisco 49ers’ first two preseason...

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