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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Sacco and Vanzetti case

Sacco and Vanzetti case   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Forensic Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Science and technology, Law
Length:
133 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Vanzetti case A landmark case involving firearms evidence. On 20 April 1920 , a robbery took place in South Braintree, Massachusetts, in the United States. The robbery was perpetrated by five men and during the course of the crime a paymaster and guard were killed. A month later, two men, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti , both Italians, were charged with the crime. A .38 pistol was recovered from Vanzetti, but it could not be conclusively tied to any of the evidence recovered. Bullets were recovered from the body (0.32 ACP calibre), and Sacco...

morphine

morphine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Forensic Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Science and technology, Law
Length:
132 words
Illustration(s):
1

...A derivative of opium that constitutes anywhere from approximately 5 to 20 per cent of the extract. Morphine is also a metabolite of some of the opiate alkaloids such as heroin. The name ‘morphine’ comes from the name of the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus. Morphine was first extracted from opium in the early 1800s and by the middle of the century was widely used for its potent pain relieving ability desperately needed by the wounded in that conflict. Morphine is classified as a narcotic analgesic (pain reliever) that in large doses can cause...

Book of the Covenant

Book of the Covenant   Reference library

Eckart Otto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,919 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with its revision which in Exodus 20:22–23 linked the Covenant Code to the Decalogue and in Exodus 23:14–19 to Exodus 34:10–26 set a frame to the Covenant Code. The postexilic redactors also revised the structure of the Covenant Code, so that it became a divine constitution for a new Israel after the exile. The new center of the revised Covenant Code, framed by the cultic stipulations in Exodus 20:22–23 ; 23:13 , 19 , 20–33 , became the social ethical and religious stipulations in Exodus 22:20—23:9 and served as the conclusion of the...

Powers, Charles

Powers, Charles (born 3 March 1853)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,444 words
Illustration(s):
1

...two decades later. The application was granted on the basis of Powers having practised as a solicitor for at least three years, and also of having passed in Latin and French. Powers was thus in formal terms a barrister, but he received minimal experience in advocacy over the next 20 years. At the time of his admission to the Bar, he was Leader of the Opposition in the Queensland Parliament. In 1899 , he was appointed Crown Solicitor for Queensland, and four years later he became the first Commonwealth Crown Solicitor, at about the time of the High Court's ...

Mansfield, Lord

Mansfield, Lord (1705–1793)   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,463 words
Illustration(s):
1

...London in April 1737 , a bill was introduced in Parliament to put the city of Edinburgh under certain disabilities. Murray acted as counsel for the Lord Provost of Edinburgh. Ultimately, the city was given only nominal punishment, and Murray's role was highly praised. On September 20, 1738 , Murray and Elizabeth Finch were married. Elizabeth's grandfather (who had died before she was born) was Heneage Finch, first Earl of Nottingham, the great seventeenth-century Lord Chancellor. Like Murray, Heneage Finch had been educated at Westminster School and Christ...

Buildings

Buildings   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
944 words
Illustration(s):
2

...this one is characterised by a symmetrical facade divided into bays; an entrance portal with vestigial columns and classical entablature; internal pavilions linked by corridors lit with natural light; and, generally, a strong emphasis on the horizontal line. It was opened on 20 February 1928 with scant ceremony. The new building in Sydney—erected on a site adjacent to the Darlinghurst Court House—also helped to overcome the problems caused by the lack of space. Although extra space had been created, the design of the building conveyed an impression that...

Dixon diaries

Dixon diaries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,979 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The 1935 diary, one should note, does not begin as though it were a new venture. In addition, he kept travel journals, written up daily like diaries: from 27 November 1923 to 22 March 1924 during his second trip to London to appear before the Privy Council , and again from 20 May to 5 September 1939 during his trip to Britain and the USA with his two sons, Franklin and Ted . His chief purpose in compiling the diaries seems to have been to make a daily record that could be checked later if necessary, and there are examples of retrospective...

Mason Court

Mason Court (6 February 1987 to 20 April 1995)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,653 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Court ( 6 February 1987 to 20 April 1995 ). The Mason Court was described by Maurice Byers in 1996 as one of ‘the most gifted and courageous High Courts in our history’. Certainly, much was achieved during Mason 's eight years as Chief Justice —a period characterised by a series of landmark decisions evincing not only significant doctrinal development but also broad changes in the approach taken by the Court. The membership of the Court during Mason's time as Chief Justice was remarkably stable, the only change being the retirement of Wilson in ...

Barton, Edmund

Barton, Edmund (born 18 January 1849)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,749 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Edmund ( born 18 January 1849 ; died 7 January 1920 ; Justice, 1903–20 ). ‘I shall never forget his kindness to me on many occasions during my career and most of all on my appointment as CJ. I doubt if any other man in his position would have gone out of his way as he did to convince me of his gracious feelings towards me.’ So wrote Knox , the second Chief Justice of the High Court, to Lady Barton after the death of her husband in 1920 . Barton, who had welcomed the newly appointed Chief Justice at Spencer Street railway station, was...

Fiji

Fiji   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,341 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., but this was declined. Unsuccessful attempts to develop local centralized government followed and during this period William Thomas Pritchard, the first British Consul to Fiji, operated a de facto justice system, establishing Consular Courts and a Mercantile Court. On March 20, 1874 , Cakobau again offered to cede Fiji and on October 10, 1874 , it became a British dependency, with the islands of Rotuma joining the colony on May 13, 1881 . Common law, rules of equity, and United Kingdom statutes of general application in force on January 2, 1875 ,...

Beating and Whipping in Chinese Law

Beating and Whipping in Chinese Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,445 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the five punishments in descending order of gravity (Balazs, pp. 59–60, 68). The Sui Dynasty ( 580–618 ) replaced whipping with beating with the heavy stick (divided into 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100 blows) as the fourth punishment and made beating with the light stick (divided into 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 blows) the fifth (lightest) punishment (Balazs, p. 74). The Sui model was adopted by all the later dynastic codes. Those of the Tang ( 618–907 ), Ming ( 1368–1644 ), and Qing dynasties all formally made beating with the heavy stick (60 to 100 blows) and beating with...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,326 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... Earlier settled by Amerindian communities, the region gradually came under Spanish influence from the early sixteenth century until Colombia declared independence from Spain on July 20, 1810. Independence was not secured until August 7, 1819, and on December 17, 1819, the Republic of Gran Colombia, comprising Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador, came into being. Colombia approached state-building in a deeply legalistic way. One of its founding fathers and first acting president, General Francisco de Paula Santander, a trained lawyer dubbed “man of the...

Wik

Wik (1996)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,586 words
Illustration(s):
1

...On 3 October 2000 , the Federal Court made a consent determination in respect of about one‐fifth of the claim area, and negotiations continue in relation to the remainder. Garth Nettheim Further Reading Tony Abrahams (ed), ‘ Forum. Wik: The Aftermath and Implications ’ (1997) 20 University of New South Wales Law Journal 487 Richard Bartlett , Native Title in Australia (2000) ch 4 Graham Hiley (ed), The Wik Case: Issues and Implications ...

Irish Envoys Case

Irish Envoys Case (1923)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,387 words
Illustration(s):
1

...power by being absorbed into the Australian community. Although Evatt managed to persuade Knox and Starke , Isaacs' uncompromising view remained to haunt the Court for decades ( see Immigration law ). Irish Envoys' arrival in Sydney from Melbourne, Central Railway Station, 20 April 1923 Susan Priest Troy...

Justice, Theories of

Justice, Theories of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,528 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(as nicely illustrated by Aristotle's comment that “when men are friends they have no need of justice” [ Nicomachean Ethics , 8.1.1155a]). In the Western tradition, discussions of justice are generally traced back to the Bible (“justice, justice shalt thou pursue” [Deuteronomy 16:20]) and to the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. For Plato, justice, both at the level of the individual and at the level of society, involves a harmony of disparate elements working as an organic whole ( Republic , 433b–435c). It is Aristotle who contributes the basic...

Appointment of Justices

Appointment of Justices   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
3,004 words
Illustration(s):
1

... during his or her term of office (section 72). Justices of the High Court of Australia Name Born Died Period in office Age on Court Government at time of appointment State of residence Samuel Griffith 1845 1920 CJ 1903–19 58–74 Protectionist Qld Edmund Barton 1849 1920 1903–20 54–70 Protectionist NSW Richard O'Connor 1851 1912 1903–12 52–61 Protectionist NSW Isaac Isaacs 1855 1948 1906–30; CJ 1930–31 51–75 Protectionist Vic Henry Higgins 1851 1929 1906–29 55–77 Protectionist Vic Frank Gavan Duffy 1852 1936 1913–31; CJ 1931–35 60–83 ALP Vic Charles...

Appointments that might have been

Appointments that might have been   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
3,909 words
Illustration(s):
1

...‘the formal offer is made I shall respectfully ask to be excused from accepting it’. The letter shows that before federation, Deakin had considered Way for the inaugural Bench. Deakin's diary suggests that he let Griffith know on 6 September that he would not appoint Symon. On 20 September , Barton wrote how glad he was not to have to suffer Symon as a colleague. Deakin made a formal offer of appointment to Way on 24 September . Deakin's invitation and Way's refusal were tabled in Parliament, allowing Deakin to use his offer—his ‘gesture’—to deflect...

Starke, Hayden Erskine

Starke, Hayden Erskine (born 22 February 1871)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,885 words
Illustration(s):
1

...most High Court appointees had done so. Starke continued to be busy during the second decade of the twentieth century, writing as many as 20 short opinions over a weekend. At the same time, he had a heavy load of court appearances, in the Supreme Court of Victoria, the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration , and the High Court. Between 1913 and 1917 , his appearances as counsel before the High Court averaged 20 a year. By the time of his appointment in 1920 , he had made at least 210 appearances before the High Court. Even before his appointment to...

Whitlam era

Whitlam era (2 December 1972 to 11 November 1975)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
3,041 words
Illustration(s):
1

...his autobiography, Murphy did not seek, nor did I give, any assurance that he would be appointed Chief Justice when the opportunity arose. Nor had there been any pre‐existing decision to appoint Byers, whose advocacy was central to my government's success in the High Court. On 20 December , the International Court delivered its judgments. After further atmospheric tests in July, August, and September, the French Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Defence had announced that they would carry out no more atmospheric tests but would proceed to underground...

Maori Law

Maori Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,595 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The claimant must demonstrate that the practice, tradition, or custom existed before contact, and that it is continuing. It is then for the Crown to reconcile the existence of the rights with Crown sovereignty. In Te Runanganui o Te Ika Whenua Inc Soc v. A-G in 1994 (2 NZLR 20), the key issue was the existence of aboriginal rights in the context of a proposed transfer of the ownership of two dams to energy companies. The claimants alleged that the transfers would prejudice their property rights in the rivers. The Court held that certain inherent...

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