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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

cordon de Royat

cordon de Royat   Reference library

Richard Smart

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
126 words
Illustration(s):
1

... cordon training used in France for wine grapes since the end of the 19th century (see illustration below). The system was proposed by Lefebvre, director of the French agricultural school of Royat. The classic form is a unilateral cordon on a short trunk (about 30 to 50 cm (12–20 in)), the term unilateral meaning that the cordon is trained only to one side of the trunk. The cordon extends mostly from one vine to another. The vines are normally spur pruned to two-bud spurs. The number of spurs is limited for each variety under appellation laws: in...

dunkel

dunkel   Reference library

Garrett Oliver

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
448 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is the dark lager style that for many years was the everyday beer of Bavaria. Although it has Early 20th-century postcard from Nuremberg, Germany, depicting a traditional pairing of bratwurst, sauerkraut, and dunkel. pike microbrewery museum, seattle, wa now been dethroned by helles, dunkel can boast a reign that lasted centuries. The German word “dunkel” simply means “dark,” and most dunkels have colors that range from a deep reddish mahogany to full, rich brown. The flavor profile is malt-forward, often showing notes of nuts, toffee, freshly baked...

vegetable spaghetti

vegetable spaghetti   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
154 words
Illustration(s):
1

...form a small layer between the flesh and the seeds, are over-developed so that they take up most of the inside and look and handle remarkably like spaghetti. The taste is bland, so this vegetable goes best with something which has a stronger flavour. In the latter part of the 20th century several new cultivars of a hybrid of C. pepo were introduced, all having similar characteristics to the original vegetable spaghetti but mostly with fruits which are orange when ripe. Among these Orangetti is prominent. White Fall is larger and creamy white. vegetable...

yabby

yabby   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
159 words
Illustration(s):
1

...covers something like a third of Australia, extending north from Victoria and S. Australia. Maximum dimensions are 16 cm (6") and 150 g (5 oz). Early settlers in Australia did not take to the yabby, although the Aboriginals could be seen eating them with enjoyment, but during the 20th century their popularity grew and they acquired a certain symbolic value. Olszewski ( 1980 ) compiled an impressive sampler of poems, cartoons, folklore, and jests to do with what he called ‘the humble yabby’. See illustration, and also marron , a related species of W....

The Boston Molasses Disaster

The Boston Molasses Disaster   Reference library

Jeri Quinzio

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
336 words
Illustration(s):
1

... when a molasses storage tank located in a congested city neighborhood ruptured. A flood of viscous molasses estimated to be 20 feet high and 160 feet wide tore through the streets at nearly 35 miles an hour. The disaster took the lives of 21 men, women, and children; injured 150; and demolished everything in its path. The Boston Molasses Disaster of 1919 occurred when a 50-foot-tall steel tank burst, sending a flood of molasses 20 feet high and nearly 200 feet wide into Boston’s North End neighborhood. This photograph captures the resulting devastation, in...

oatmeal stout

oatmeal stout   Reference library

Brian Thompson

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
269 words
Illustration(s):
1

...distinction being the inclusion of up to 20% oats by weight in the grist. The addition of oats, a cereal grain with high concentrations—relative to barley—of body-enhancing beta-glucans, water-soluble lipids, and proteins, adds a distinctly silky and rich mouth feel to the beer. Stouts brewed with oatmeal became popular in late 19th-century England, with the stout style in general, and oatmeal stouts in particular, being associated with nourishment and viewed as healthful, restorative drinks. By the middle of the 20th century, however, the style had largely...

fruit jelly

fruit jelly   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
214 words
Illustration(s):
1

...turned out. See drawing. Nowadays a fruit jelly is mainly perceived in Europe as a treat for children, and is easily prepared from blocks of coloured, flavoured gelatin dissolved in water. In N. America, under the trade name Jell-O, it was used to a remarkable extent in the mid-20th century, mainly for the benefit of adult women. Reading Brears (1996). Elaborate jellies were a speciality of Mrs Raffald in Manchester, c.1769, including a fishe pond, a hen’s nest with lemon zest ‘straw’, a flummery melon in a garland of flowers, the moon and stars, and a...

perch

perch   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
237 words
Illustration(s):
1

... a name applied to various fish, notably Perca fluviatilis , a moderate-sized (maximum length 50 cm/20") Eurasian river and lake fish which has been widely introduced elsewhere for the benefit of anglers and because it is considered to be a good food fish. The yellow perch of N. America is almost indistinguishable from the European perch, but often classified separately as P. flavescens . The name perch has been applied, by extension, to other species, freshwater or marine, which display characteristics (e.g. two distinct dorsal fins) similar to those of...

pomfret

pomfret   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
224 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Stromateidae— Peprilus triacanthus is the outstanding one on the eastern seaboard of the USA, dubbed by Mitcham ( 1975 ) ‘one of the most delicious treats which Mother Ocean provides, and one of the rarest’). The white pomfret is the larger, with a maximum length of 50 cm (20"); the black pomfret only reaches 30 cm (12"). In each instance, average market length is about half the maximum. The white pomfret is the most highly esteemed fish for serving at honorific meals in Malaysia, where the excess of demand over supply makes it expensive. Indeed it is...

violet

violet (1)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
208 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to as a ‘sea squirt’. These creatures, known as ascidians, belong to the family Pyuridae in the order Stolidobranchiata, and occur in various species around the world, although not everywhere regarded as edible. In the Mediterranean, Microcosmus sulcatus reaches a dimension of 20 cm (8") and is not uncommon in the markets, especially those of Provence. It is the yellow part inside which is eaten, raw, looking something like scrambled egg. In S. America the smaller species Pyura chilensis is exploited and consumed locally. Chileans prefer to eat it raw in...

shoot

shoot   Reference library

Bryan Coombe and Richard Smart

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
205 words
Illustration(s):
1

...A vigorous shoot is evident by its long internodes, large leaves, strong lateral shoots , and long tip tendrils well before flowering; weak shoots are the opposite. Despite these differences in growth rate and length at full bloom, shoots, whether weak or vigorous, have 17 to 20 visible internodes. Later in summer the stem of the shoot changes from green to brown (lignifies) and thus becomes a cane ( see cane ripening ). See also shoot tip . Dr Bryan Coombe & Dr Richard...

Red Leicester

Red Leicester   Reference library

Chris George

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
473 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cheeses such as Cheddar or Double Gloucester, and is made using the same manufacturing methods (e.g., scalding, cheddaring, pressing, cloth binding). See territorial . A finished cheese would be around 6 inches (15 centimeters) deep, 20 inches (51 centimeters) across, and weigh approximately 44 pounds (20 kilograms). However, currently, the vast majority of Red Leicester consumed is produced in a rindless, industrial block format, which is stored and prepackaged in plastic. Sparkenhoe Red Leicester, made by David and Jo Clarke at their small dairy...

Rigó Jancsi

Rigó Jancsi   Reference library

Cara De Silva

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
421 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Empire, but elsewhere in Europe, the United States, and Australia, it lives on as a testament to consuming passion. Bibliography Katona, Csaba . “‘Európa legérdekesebb hercegnője’—egy normaszegő nő a 19–20. század fordulóján” [“The Most Interesting Princess of Europe”—A Woman against the Rules at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries]. Turul 86, no. 3 (2013): 100–107. Cara De Silva ...

Cebreiro

Cebreiro   Reference library

Juan A. Centeno

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
425 words
Illustration(s):
1

...acidic coagulation, with the addition of (nonspecific) mesophilic DL-starters and small quantities of calf rennet (about 0.05 milliliters/liter, 1:10,000–15,000 strength) at 78–86°F (26–30°C) for at least sixty minutes (usually six to twelve hours). The curd is cut into 10–20-millimeter pieces, which are then placed in cloth (cotton) bags that are hung for five to ten hours to allow the whey to drain off. After draining, the curds are worked to give a uniform paste with a claylike texture, and salt is added. Cebreiro, a Spanish PDO soft cheese, is shaped...

Yakima Valley hop region

Yakima Valley hop region   Reference library

Thomas Shellhammer and Val Peacock

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
449 words
Illustration(s):
1

...approximately 230 km southeast of Seattle, Washington, at roughly 46 north latitude. This region experiences long days of up to 16 h of sunlight during the summer months, moderate summer temperatures with an average high of 31°C (87°F), and cold winters with an average low of –7°C (20°F). Because the region is also in the rain shadow of the Cascade Range, rainfall is very light, averaging 21 cm (8 inches) per year, which translates into less than 2 cm per month. Rain in the summer months is rare. Although the name “Yakima” is now iconic among American brewers...

helles

helles   Reference library

Conrad Seidl

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
765 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is the session beer of Bavarian beer gardens. The success of the helles style around the turn of the 20th century caused a furor among traditionalists, who considered dark beers the only “real” Bavarian lager. photograph by denton tillman In the United States, some prefer to call the style “Münchner style helles” after the city where it originated in 1894, although today helles is a style that is brewed in most parts of Bavaria. Until the turn of the 20th century, dark beers had been considered the only “real” Bavarian lager, in part because most Bavarian...

temperance

temperance   Reference library

Tim Hampson

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
642 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in several countries in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement began in the United States, where an abstinence pledge had been introduced by churches as early as 1800. However, the earliest temperance organizations seem to have been founded at Saratoga, New York, in 1808 and in Massachusetts in 1813. Its roots are founded deep Carrie Nation (1846–1911). A heroine to the temperance movement, Kentucky-born Nation vandalized bars and saloons, often using a hatchet for maximum effect. american photographer , 20th century/private collection/the stapleton...

Toma Piemontese

Toma Piemontese   Reference library

Giuseppe Zeppa

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
379 words
Illustration(s):
1

...or in brine, for 24–48 hours. See fascèra . The ripening time is 15 days for the small size, which has a diameter of about 6–10 inches (15–25 centimeters) and weighs about 4–8.6 pounds (2–6 kilograms), and 60 days for the large size, which has a diameter of about 8–12 inches (20–30 centimeters) and weighs about 13–17.6 pounds (6–8 kilograms). There are two types of Toma Piemontese. The first type, Toma Piemontese PDO, is produced with whole milk and has a dough-white or ivory-white appearance with small and sparse holes. This cheese has an elastic texture,...

flying fish

flying fish   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
295 words
Illustration(s):
1

...are in general counted as inferior food, although some W. Indians relish them and incorporate them in dishes such as flying fish pies. The flesh resembles that of the half-beak . In the Mediterranean, Hirundichthys rondeletii , whose wings are black, has a market length of around 20 cm (8") and may be met in some fish markets. In SE Asia, Cypselurus oligolepis is a common species. It is known as bolador (from the Spanish) in the Philippines, where it enjoys some popularity. Flying fish belong to the tropical and subtropical waters of the world; their way...

goby

goby   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
287 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Turkey; and another is G. cobitis , larger still. Discrimination among and appreciation of gobies is greater in Turkey than in any other European country. The Indo-Pacific species include one which is, by goby standards, a giant: Glossogobius giuris , maximum length 50 cm (20"), known in Malaysia as ikan ubi (meaning ‘potato fish’) and of interest as food to Filipinos (who in this respect may be counted as the Turks of the Pacific) and others. However, a relatively large size is not a necessary condition for edibility in this family. The French name ...

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