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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

vajra

vajra   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the ritual bell (ghaṇṭā) in Tibetan Buddhism, the vajra symbolizes skilful means ( upāya-kauśalya ) in contrast to insight ( prajñā ). In Japanese Shingon , the vajra is associated with the concept of the Vajra Realm which is derived from the Sarva-tathāgata-tattva-saṃgraha . Fig 20...

Ephesians

Ephesians   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for his readers completed 3:20–21 Praise of God's power at work in the church (doxology) 4:1–16 The church's calling to maintain the unity of the Spirit 4:17–24 Exhortation to live according to the new, not the old humanity 4:25–32 Practical instructions for living in unity 5:1–2 The centrality of love as imitation of Christ 5:3–14 Practical instructions for living in unity 5:15–20 Exhortation to live in the wisdom of the Spirit 5:21—6:9 The church's calling to live as members of Christ's body in the household 6:10–20 Concluding appeal to stand firm...

Ezekiel

Ezekiel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,981 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( 15 , 17 , 19 ) intersperse long narrative chapters ( 16 , 18 , 20 ). There are three lengthy historical recitals that describe the history of Judah's faithlessness ( chs. 16 , 20 , 23 ) and three major vision cycles ( 1:4–3:15 ; 8:1–11:25 ; 40:1–48:35 ). The theme of prophetic opponents links the oracles in 13:1–14:11 . Brief prophecies of salvation appear among the Prophecies of Judgment, anticipating the Prophecies of Salvation (see 11:14–21 ; 16:59–63 ; 17:22–24 ; 20:40–44 ). Certain literary genres are repeated. Ezekiel performs a number...

Pesharim

Pesharim   Reference library

James Hamilton Charlesworth and Henry W. Morisada Rietz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,494 words
Illustration(s):
1

...“the Council of the Community” (frgs. 1–4, 14, 24, and 31 line 5), “the interpreter of the Torah” (frgs. 7, 9–11, 20, and 26 line 5), “the Sons of Light” (frgs. 7, 9–11, 20, and 26 line 7; frgs. 12–13 1.9), and the “congregation of the seekers after sm[o]oth things” (frgs. 7, 9–11, 20, and 26 line 12). Like Florilegium, Catena A uses a pesher formula only sporadically to introduce its commentary (frgs. 1–4, 14, 24, and 31 1.6; frgs. 7, 9–11, 20, and 26 line 9). Other Occurrences of the Word “Pesher” and Commentaries. The word pesher is also used in a few...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Reinhard Achenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,608 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by corpses X The Way through the Wilderness II 20:1aa The wandering to the wilderness of Zin X 20:1ab,b The death of Miriam at Kadesh X 20:2–13 The sin of Moses and Aaron at the waters of Meribah X 20:14–21 The Edomites refuse the Israelite request to pass through their territory X 20:22–29 The death of Aaron at Mount Hor X 21:1–3 The encounter with the Canaanites and the ban on Arad/Hormah X 21:4a Skirting the land of Edom X 21:4b–9 The murmuring in the wilderness and the copper serpent X 21:10–20 The route to the Wadi Zered and Mount Pisgah X The...

Exodus

Exodus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,980 words
Illustration(s):
4

...17:1–7 , The Lawsuit over Water 17:8–16 , War and Remembrance 18:1–12 , The Divine Rescue and Worship 18:13–27 , The Administration of Law 2. Exodus 19:1—24:11 , The Revelation 19:1–8a , The Proposal of Covenant 19:8b–19 , The Theophany 19:20—23:33 , The Law 19:2020:23 [Heb. 20:20], The Decalogue 20:24 [Heb. 20:21]—23:33 , The Book of the Covenant 24:1–11 , The Covenant Ceremony 3. Exodus 24:12—40:38 , The Sanctuary 24:12—32:35 , The Loss of the Tablets 24:12–18 , The Ascent of Moses 25–31 , The Revelation of the Tabernacle 25:1—27:19 The...

Revelation

Revelation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,842 words
Illustration(s):
3

...destroyed by fire from heaven ( 20:9 ). At the end of the vision, Satan is hurled into the lake of fire to join his other two allies forever ( 20:10 ). A resurrection and judgment scene constitutes the next brief vision ( 20:11–15 ) in which all those whose names are not found in the Book of Life are thrown into the lake of fire, along with the personified figures of Death and Hades. The notion that Death and/or Hades are to be abolished at the end appears in other apocalypses of John's time (cf. 4 Ezra 8:53 ; 2 Bar 20–23) as well as in the letters of...

John, Gospel According to

John, Gospel According to   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,892 words
Illustration(s):
3

...between the earthly and resurrected Jesus ( 20:20–22 ). Thomas provides the pinnacle of the chapter with his confession “My Lord and my God!” ( 20:28 ). Here the ideal reader, without being physically present during Jesus' life, nonetheless reaches for herself the insight of the prologue, “the Word was God” ( 1:1c ). The Gospel concludes with a statement of purpose: “so that you may continue to believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that through believing you may have life in his name” ( 20:31 lit.). The Epilogue: The Community Moves...

Matthew, Gospel According to

Matthew, Gospel According to   Reference library

Anders Runesson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,029 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the Roman Empire, is taken on in order to transform it according to the will of the God of Israel, the eschatological presence of Jesus (Immanuel) will be with the disciples in the same way that God was with Jesus, so that, ultimately, death could not keep him ( 1:23 ; 10:20 ; 18:20 ; 28:20 ; cf. Isa 7:14 ; 8:8–10 ). Interpretation. Over the centuries, the Gospel of Matthew has confronted its readers with interpretive and hermeneutical complexity stemming in part from the fact that the text was produced by first-century Jews in the Middle East while the...

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy   Reference library

Bernard M. Levinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,604 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Theft (19) 8 Theft (19) Theft (19) False Witness (20) 9 False Witness (20) False Witness (20) Coveting Wife (21) 10 Coveting (21) Coveting (21) Coveting Property (21) * Verse numbers in parentheses subsequent generations of readers had to struggle to make sense of the second problem the Decalogue presents to the reader—how the one Pentateuch contained two mutually inconsistent Decalogues! Within the narrative frame, Deuteronomy's authors present the Decalogue as a precise reprise of that found in Exodus 20:2–17 , but in fact the text actually diverges in...

1 and 2 Kings

1 and 2 Kings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,163 words
Illustration(s):
3

...other prophets: 1 Kgs 20 , 22 Summary histories of the kings of Judah: Rehoboam ( 1 Kgs 14:21–31 ); Abijam ( 1 Kgs 15:1–8 ); Asa ( 1 Kgs 15:9–24 ); Jehoshaphat ( 1 Kgs 22:41–51 ); Jehoram ( 2 Kgs 8:16–24 ); Ahaziah ( 2 Kgs 8:25–29 ); Athaliah ( 2 Kgs 11:1–20 ); Joash ( 2 Kgs 12:1–22 ); Amaziah ( 2 Kgs 14:1–22 ); Azariah ( 2 Kgs 15:1–7 ); Jotham ( 2 Kgs 15:32–38 ); Ahaz ( 2 Kgs 16:1–20 ) III. The kingdom of Judah until its fall ( 2 Kgs 18–25 ) Hezekiah: the siege and deliverance of Jerusalem; the king's illness (2 Kgs 18–20) Manasseh (2 Kgs...

Job

Job   Reference library

Brennan W. Breed and C. Davis Hankins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,664 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and 28:20–22 , in which the nearly repeated refrain in verses 12 and 20 is followed by the answers to the refrain's questions with respect to living beings ( vv. 13 and 21 ) and mythic, cosmic beings ( vv. 14 and 22 ). The first stanza ( vv. 1–11 ) describes the hidden places of precious metals and the human quest to search them out. The second stanza ( vv. 12–19 ) is marked by the first occurrence of the refrain, “But where shall wisdom be found?” which it answers, “Mortals do not know the way to it.” The third stanza ( vv. 20–27 ) begins...

Source Criticism

Source Criticism   Reference library

David M. Carr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,614 words
Illustration(s):
1

...not to bring another flood ( 8:20–22 and 9:8–17 ). Furthermore, a closer examination of these pairs shows that they contain different concepts of the chronology of the flood and the types of animals brought onto the ark. For example, one strand, referring to God as Yahweh [“ Lord ”], asserts that Noah was instructed by Yahweh to bring extra pairs of clean animals onto the ark ( 7:2 ), and having these extra pairs of sacrificial animals then allows him to sacrifice a few such animals after the flood ( 8:20 ), an action that prompts Yahweh to...

Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Illustration(s):
2

...18:18–23 Jeremiah's fifth lament 19:1–15 sign-act: breaking a jug 20:1–6 Jeremiah in conflict with priestly authority 20:7–12 Jeremiah's sixth lament 20:13 exhortation to praise God for deliverance 20:14–18 Jeremiah?s seventh lament IV. Against the Jerusalem leadership ( 21:1—29:32 ) 21:1—23:40 against kings and false prophets 21:1–14 against Zedekiah and his followers 22:1–9 holding Davidic kings accountable 22:10–12 against Shallum (Jehoahaz) 22:13–19 against Jehoiakim 22:20–23 against Zion 22:24–30 against Coniah 23:1–4 against evil...

Luke, Gospel According to

Luke, Gospel According to   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,728 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by the work of J. Jervell ( 1972 ) . Jervell points to the many places in Acts where Jews convert to the new message ( Acts 2:41 ; 4:4 ; 5:14 ; 6:1 , 7 ; 9:42 ; 12:24 ; 13:43 ; 14:1 ; 17:10ff ; 19:20 ; 21:20 ), which would belie the older notion that Luke's view of Jews was universally dim. He is especially interested in Acts 21:20 , which describes “myriads” of Christ-believers in Jerusalem who are Jews and who are said also to be zealous for the Law. Such texts suggest to him a necessary adjustment to the older consensus. Luke did not in...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,059 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of Babel ( 11:4–9 ). Illustration from the Velislav Bible, c. 1340 . National University Library, Prague, Czech Republic/Giraudon/The Bridgeman Art Library International ( Gen 9:20–27 ) echoes parts of the garden of Eden story ( Gen 2:4—3:24 ), with Noah as the first vintner ( 9:20 ; cf. Adam as first farmer 2:15 ), who experiences problems from his produce (drunkenness in 9:20–21 ; see 3:2–19 ), involving nakedness ( 9:22 ; see 3:7 ) and a final pronouncement of judgment ( 9:25–27 ; 3:14–19 ). The Noah story also parallels the Cain and Abel account,...

1 Corinthians

1 Corinthians   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,735 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for the letter: (1) reports of problems in the church and (2) a letter from Corinth seeking his guidance. I. Opening greeting and thanksgiving ( 1:1–9 ) II. Paul's response to reports of problems in the Corinthian church ( 1:10—6:20 ) A. Divisions in the church ( 1:10—4:21 ) B. Immorality in the church ( 5:1—6:20 ) III. Paul's response to a letter from the Corinthian church ( 7:1—16:12 ) A. About marriage ( 7:1–40 ) B. About food sacrificed to idols ( 8:1—11:1 ) 1. The problem and its affect ( 8:1–13 ) 2. Paul's example: Giving up his rights (...

Proverbs

Proverbs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,355 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( 1:2–5 ), warnings against evildoers ( 1:8–19 ), and an introduction to the figure of Wisdom in prophetic terms ( 1:20–33 ). There are ten instructions in the section in 1:8–19 ; 2:1–22 ; 3:1–12 ; 3:21–35 ; 4:1–9 ; 4:10–19 ; 4:20–27 ; 5:1–23 ; 6:20–35 ; 7:1–27 (see Whybray, Proverbs 1994 ) punctuated by other poems about Wisdom in 3:13–20 and chapter 8 . There are also small sections of autobiographical narrative such as 7:6–20 . Proverbs 10:1—22:16 : “The Proverbs of Solomon,” Part 2. This is a miscellany of sayings on many topics always...

Isaiah

Isaiah   Reference library

Christopher B. Hays

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,039 words
Illustration(s):
4

...brilliance; instead, they have parallels with traditional prophetic materials such as Jeremiah 48–49 and Obadiah 5 ( Blenkinsopp 2000 , p. 298). The situation is slightly different in chapters 18–20 , in that there is every reason to believe that the bulk of these chapters relates to the historical situation in the late eighth century. Chapter 20 refers to the “Ashdod Affair” of 713–711, in which Sargon II of Assyria campaigned to the Levant in response to an uprising in the coastal city of Ashdod. The king who had taken the throne, Yamani, fled to...

Sirach

Sirach   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,832 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and subscription MS C: an anthology and not a running text, containing all or parts of (in manuscript order) 3:14–18 , 21–22 ; 41:16 ; 4:21 ; 20:22–23 ; 4:22–23 , 30–31 ; 5:4–7 , 9–13 ; 36.(21)24 ; 6:5–6 ; 37.1 , 2 ; 6.7 , 9–10 , 8 , 12–15 ; 3:27 ; 6:18 , 19 , 28 , 35 ; 7:1 , 4 , 6 , 17 , 20 , 21 , 23–25 ; 8:7a ; 18:31b–33 ; 19:1–2 ; 20:5–6 , 7 ; 37:19 , 22 , 24 , 26 ; 20:13 ; 41:14–15 ; 21.22–23 , 26 ; 22:11 ; 30.17c ; 22:12 , 21–22 ; 23:11 ; 25:7 , 8 , 13 , 17–24 ; 26:1–3 , 13 , 15–17 ; 36:22–26 MS D:...

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