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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Venn diagram

Venn diagram   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
219 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that some S is indeed P; hence the syllogism is valid. Venn generalized the method. For statements in the algebra of classes involving four terms, ellipses can be drawn, but the method becomes cumbersome. Strips and charts of various kinds were invented in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to give graphical representations of such...

Smeaton, John

Smeaton, John (1724–92)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,088 words
Illustration(s):
6

...velocity. Smeaton sets out some simple calcul-ations. He assumes two objects each of mass 8, one at rest and the other colliding with it at velocity 20. Let m 1 and m 2 represent the masses, v 1 and v 2 the velocities before the collision and v 3 the aggregate velocity after the collision. Then, according to the new opinion, the mechanical power before the collision is m 1 v 1 2 + m 2 v 2 2 = ( 8 × 20 2 ) + ( 8 × 0 2 ) = 3200 and the mechanical power after collision is ( m 1 + m 2 ) × v 3 2 = ( 8 + 8 ) × 10 2 = 1600. So mv 2 is not conserved: there...

MacColl, Hugh

MacColl, Hugh (1837–1909)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,465 words
Illustration(s):
12

...1877), pp.91–2. ‘ Symbolical Language–No.2 ’, The Educational Times and Journal of the College of Preceptors , vol.30 (November 1877), p.195. ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements and Integration Limits ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol.9 (1877–8), pp.9–20. ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements (II) ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol.9 (1877–8), pp.177–86. ‘ Symbolic[al] Reasoning (I) ’, Mind , vol.5 ns (1880), pp.45–60. ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements (V) ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical...

logic

logic   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
5,744 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Norman , Anthony Kenny and Jan Pinborg (eds), The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy (Cambridge, 1982). MacColl, Hugh , ‘ The Calculus of Equivalent Statements and Integration Limits ’, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society , vol. 9 (1877–8), pp. 9–20. Marciszewski, Witold and Roman Murawski , Mechanization of Reasoning in Historical Perspective. Pozna_ Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities , vol. 43 (Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1995). Mill, John Stuart , A System of Logic , Ratiocinative and Inductive,...

Whewell, William

Whewell, William (1794–1866)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
9,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

... William Whewell: A Composite Portrait (Oxford, 1991). Morrell, J. and A. Thackray , Gentlemen of Science: Early Years of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Oxford, 1981). Ruse, M. , ‘ The Scientific Methodology of William Whewell ’, Centaurus , vol.20 (1976), pp.227–57. ——, The Darwinian Revolution: Science Red in Tooth and Claw (Chicago, 1979). ——, ‘ William Whewell : Omniscientist’, in Fisch and Schaffer (eds), William Whewell (1991), pp.87–116. ——, Monad to Man: The Concept of Progress in Evolutionary Biology ...

Peace

Peace   Reference library

Willard M. Swartley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,009 words
Illustration(s):
2

...peacemaking manifesto ( Yoder Neufeld, 2011 ). Most significant is Paul’s virtually unique appellation, “God of peace” ( Rom 15:33 ; 16:20 ; 1 Cor 14:33 ; 2 Cor 13:11 ; 1 Thess 5:23 ; 2 Thess 3:16 ; Phil 4:9 ; exception: T. Dan . 5:2). “God of peace” also introduces Hebrews’ benediction ( 13:20 ) and is linked to God’s eternal covenant . “The God of peace will shortly crush Satan under your feet” ( Rom 16:20 ) startlingly blends “God of peace” with imagery of battle against Satan. Similarly, in Ephesians 6:15 believers wear God’s armor,...

Einstein, Carl

Einstein, Carl (1885–1940)   Reference library

Charles W. Haxthausen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
1,855 words
Illustration(s):
1

...decades after his death, largely undiscovered by Anglophone readers. He is known primarily as the author of Negerplastik ( 1915 ; “Negro Sculpture,” 2004 ), a landmark in the European reception of African art; the two major books of his maturity, Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts (Art of the 20th Century; 1926 , 1928 , 1931 ), in its time the most substantive study in any language of its subject, and Georges Braque ( 1934 ), the summa of Einstein’s mature aesthetic theory, have only recently been partially translated into English. Einstein’s writings...

Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Alexander Rehding

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,706 words
Illustration(s):
2

...typically communicated by air molecules that are sensed by our eardrums and then processed in the brain. While the domain of acoustics has traditionally been the audible range from approximately 20 to 20,000 Hz (i.e., waves vibrating between 20 and 20,000 cycles per second), modern scientific acoustics also concerns infrasound (below 20 Hz) or ultrasound (above 20,000 Hz), both of which are inaudible to humans. Acoustics is applied in numerous practical fields, including musical instruments and tuning systems, sound engineering, speech processing,...

Bourgeois, Louise

Bourgeois, Louise (1911–2010)   Reference library

Mignon Nixon

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2 (1999): 71–100. Potts, Alex . “Louise Bourgeois—Sculptural Confrontations.” Oxford Art Journal 22, no. 2 (1999): 37–53. Robbins, Daniel . “Sculpture by Louise Bourgeois.” Art International 8 (20 October 1964): 29–31. Rubin, William S. “Some Reflections Prompted by the Recent Work of Louise Bourgeois.” Studio International 8 (20 April 1969): 17–20. Storr, Robert . Louise Bourgeois Drawings . New York: Robert Miller Gallery, 1988. Strick, Jeremy . Louise Bourgeois: The Personages . Saint Louis, Mo.: Saint Louis Museum of Art, 1994. Wagner, Anne...

Land

Land   Reference library

Karen J. Wenell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...end ( ch. 13 ) and Matthew’s Olivet discourse ( Matt 24 ). Texts such as Hebrews and—significantly—Revelation, have fueled Christian construction of a script relating to the return of Christ. Premillennial dispensationalism looks to Christ’s thousand-year reign on earth ( Rev 20:1–8 ) and sees the gathering of Jews to Palestine/Israel as a precursor to the second coming. Such views are associated with Christian Zionism, which is not well represented in scholarship as it tends to be evidenced in more popular writings, yet its impact on American (and...

Video

Video   Reference library

James M. Moran

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Video Criticism.” Millennium Film Journal 20/21 (Fall/Winter 1988–1989): 46–55. Jameson, Fredric . “Video: Surrealism without the Unconscious.” In Postmodernism: or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism , pp. 67–96. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1991. Kurtz, Bruce . “Video Is Being Invented.” Arts Magazine 47 (December/January 1973): 37–44. Marshall, Stuart . “Television/Video: Technology/Forms.” Afterimage 8/9 (Spring 1981): 70–85. Marshall, Stuart . “Video: Technology and Practice.” Screen 20, no. 1 (Spring 1979): 109–119. Nmungwun, Aaron...

Rabbinic Literature

Rabbinic Literature   Reference library

John T. Townsend

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
7,663 words
Illustration(s):
1

...aggada (or haggadah), denoting the remainder. Halakha controls the way of life, while aggada need not affect life fundamentally. The distinction, if not the names, are ancient. Comparing the Decalogue in Exodus 20:2–17 with Deuteronomy 6:6–21 , one finds that the only major difference comes at the end of the commandment about the sabbath ( Exod 20:11 vs. Deut 6:15 ), to explain why one keeps the sabbath, but the difference does not affect how one keeps it. Such free treatment of aggada agreed with attitudes toward legend in the Roman world. Thus Livy (...

African Aesthetics

African Aesthetics   Reference library

Barry Hallen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,682 words
Illustration(s):
1

... “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern . Vol. 1, edited by William Rubin , pp. 125–175. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984. Price, Sally . Primitive Art in Civilized Places . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Rorty, Richard . Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature . Corr. ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980. Rubin, Arnold . African Accumulative Sculpture: Power and Display . New York: Pace Editions, 1974. Rubin, William . “Modernist Primitivism.” In “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art:...

Anthropology

Anthropology   Reference library

Susanne Küchler

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,465 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Mary Douglas ( 1994 ) points to the nonarbitrary nature of categorization of objects in terms of value grounded in the capacity of objects to denote and exemplify relationships in that “objects constitute social systems and would have no recognisability if they did not” (p. 20). Douglas summarizes with her excurse on the “genuine article” anthropology’s long-standing recognition that aesthetics is a function not merely of language, but of the skill to discriminate in context. The socialness of concepts of value and taste and their activation in the...

Roman Aesthetics

Roman Aesthetics   Reference library

Richard Brilliant

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,447 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 ce , prosaically inserted the most complete, if very condensed, history of Greek sculpture and painting that survived classical antiquity in Books 34–37 of his compendium of practical knowledge, the Natural History . Augustus of Prima Porta, ca . 20 bce (marble), Roman. vatican museums and galleries, vatican city / the bridgeman art library Even Pliny’s views about artworks and artists, if one can so dignify them, were shaped by Greek classicizing standards with little reference to past or present Roman artistic practice or...

Constructivism

Constructivism   Reference library

Daniel Herwitz

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,586 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1977, reprint, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993. Lewison, Jeremy , ed. Circle: Constructive Art in Britain, 1934–1940 . Cambridge, U.K.: Kettle’s Yard Gallery, 1982. Catalog of the exhibition Circles: International Survey of Constructive Art, held at Kettle’s Yard Gallery, 20 February–24 March 1982. See “Constructive Art” by Naum Gabo, pp. 59–61. Milner, John . Vladimir Tatlin and the Russian Avant-Garde . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press 1983. Nisbet, Peter , ed. El Lissitzky, 1890–1941: Catalogue for an Exhibition of Selected Works from North...

Gift

Gift   Reference library

Dirk Quadflieg

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,802 words
Illustration(s):
1

...made of shells circulate in a kind of endless ring between the islands. Again, these gifts establish a perpetual social bond among the kula partners based on the obligation to repay a gift—sometimes months or a year later—with “interest,” as Mauss puts it ( Mauss, 1966 , p. 20). Yet contrary to the warlike potlatch, the kula ring establishes a peaceful interchange among numerous tribes lasting generations. Moving on to the magical notion of the hau in New Zealand Maori culture, Mauss is led to explore the deeper structure of the obligation. According...

Information Theory

Information Theory   Reference library

Meredith Hoy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,677 words
Illustration(s):
2

...terms of statistical information instantiates the cultural imagination of the time, suffused with dreams and critiques of the capabilities and limitations of information-processing systems. Installation view of the exhibition Information . Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2 July–20 November 1970 . digital image © museum of modern art / licensed by scala / art resource, new york In some sense, any artwork involving the use of electronic computation must be “about” information, as it is produced by an information-processing system. Many artworks that predate the...

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig (1886–1969)   Reference library

K. Michael Hays

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,977 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Lambert, Phyllis . Mies in America . New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001. Mertins, Detlef . Mies . New York: Phaidon, 2013. Mertins, Detlef , ed. The Presence of Mies . New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig . The Mies van der Rohe Archive . 20 vols. Edited by Arthur Drexler . New York: Garland, 1986–1992. Neumeyer, Fritz . The Artless Word: Mies van der Rohe on the Building Art . Translated by Mark Jarzombek . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. Quetglas, José . “Fear of Glass: The Barcelona Pavilion.” In Architect...

Public Art

Public Art   Reference library

Cher Krause Knight

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,311 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with self-serving interests, usually from royalty or the ruling classes and utilizing artworks to symbolize their social clout and political might. The famed Portrait of Augustus from Primaporta, Italy (known to us now only as a marble copy of a bronze original of ca . 20 bce ), depicted the sitter as a general to represent his supposed military prowess. Given that most Roman subjects would never see Augustus in person they would be unlikely to question the godlike presence of the emperor or his eternally youthful appearance, which was propagated...

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