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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Habibuddin Khan

Habibuddin Khan (1899)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
97 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Khan ( b. Meerut , 1899 ; d. ?, 20 July 1972 ) Reputed tabla player of the Ajrāḍā tabla gharānā . A rejuvenator of his gharānā, he was initially trained by his father Shammu Khan and then by Munir Khan of the Delhi gharānā. On stage, he used to play the Delhi style first, then the Lucknow and the Ajrāḍā styles. He was not very keen on giving solo recitals. His disciples included Manju Khan , Hajarilal Kathak , Karan Singh , Ram Durve , Maharaj Banerji , Pappan Khan , Ram Parvesh Singh , Amir Mohammad , Hajmat Ali , and Sudhir...

graphic scores

graphic scores   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
91 words
Illustration(s):
1

...scores Scores by 20th‐cent. avant‐garde composers that employ drawn visual analogues in order to convey the composer's intentions with regard to the required sounds and textures. Earliest exampls incl. Feldman 's Projections 1950–1 . Some graphic scores indicate distinct music parameters, as in examples by Feldman , Stockhausen , and Ligeti . Others deliberately omit any notational sign or music indication, seeking only to stimulate the performer's creativity. Examples by Bussotti , Earle Brown , and Cardew are often pictorially delightful if...

hocket

hocket   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
127 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Many motets by Machaut and other 13th- and 14th-century composers include passages in hocket between the upper parts, but after about 1400 it was superseded by other contrapuntal developments and tended to be reserved for special effects. It reappeared in works by a number of 20th-century composers ( Webern , Maxwell Davies ) and is also a feature of some African and Indonesian antiphonal performance...

Mouthpiece

Mouthpiece   Reference library

Philip Bate, Murray Campbell, and Arnold Myers

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
633 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a bow. In the 20th century specialist makers of mouthpieces emerged and makers produced extensive ranges of mouthpieces differing in rim, cup, and backbore shape. Categorizing mouthpieces is not simple: some instruments (especially the trombone) have used at different times and in different places a wide range of cup shapes; in other cases mouthpieces for different instruments (e.g. keyed bugle and cornopean) have been indistinguishable. Mouthpieces for brass instruments fall into two main groups: those with a cup diameter less than 20 mm (including those...

slide

slide   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
184 words
Illustration(s):
3

...slide . 1 (Fr.: glissade , port de voix ; It.: portamento ). In string playing, a method of changing position between two unadjacent notes without lifting the finger from the fingerboard. It was much used for expressive effect in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and often considerably abused. Ex. 1 a shows the usual way of indicating it, but Bach notated it as in Ex. 1 b . Paganini introduced a virtuoso version by executing chromatic scale passages, often in 3rds, with the same finger or fingers. See portamento (1) . 2 (Fr.: coulé, flatté;...

binary form

binary form   Reference library

G. M. Tucker and Lalage Cochrane

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
527 words
Illustration(s):
1

...long and opens in the dominant key. But instead of returning directly to the home key the music proceeds through F♯ minor, the relative minor of the tonic (bar 16), and passes again through the dominant (bar 18) in a harmonic sequence leading to the subdominant key of D major (bar 20), before closing in the home key. During the mid- and late Baroque periods, various characteristics became apparent in binary-form movements. One such feature was the use of ‘rhyming cadences’, whereby the cadence at the end of the first section was heard again in the tonic key at...

Dotārā

Dotārā (Duitara)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
337 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a strip of jackwood or margosa (neem tree). The stem has to be hollow. The resonator of this variety could be conical, tapering towards the point of the neck (more or less as in a sārangi). The length of the stem ranges from 50 to 100 cm; the width of the hollow belly is between 12–20 cm, covered with iguana (ghorpaḍ) skin in the higher varieties of the instrument, Duitārā, Khasi string instrument which also has a finger-board, a bridge of bone, wood or horn, and tuning pegs for the four strings. In some further improved versions, performers have introduced...

Ghumaṭ

Ghumaṭ   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
279 words
Illustration(s):
1

...A single-faced drum of Goa. It is made out of an earthen pot with two mouths or openings. The smaller mouth measures 10 to 12 cm in diameter. The bigger mouth has a diameter of 15 to 20 cm and is tightly covered by the skin of an iguana (ghorpaḍ). This is the playing face. The use of iguana skin on the playing face is said to be a special feature of ghumaṭ. The smaller mouth is closed by the palm of one hand. Pressure is exerted by the palm on the air trapped inside the Ghumaṭ, a single-faced drum of Goa pot to change the pitch of its sound. Trapped air...

Tanggu

Tanggu   Reference library

Alan R. Thrasher

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
342 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Tanggu, China, 19th century. (Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments (421)) The traditional tanggu, unlike most other barrel drums, has a bulbous lateral profile. The length of the body is typically about the same as the head diameter, usually between 20 and 30 cm. On modern small tanggu, however, body length is somewhat elongated and the profile less convex. The shorter zhangu has a less bulbous body and greater variability in size; a small one typically measures about 17 cm long and about 27 cm in head diameter. The tonggu is...

hurdy-gurdy

hurdy-gurdy   Reference library

Jeremy Montagu

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
293 words
Illustration(s):
1

...when the pastoral ideal was in vogue; much music was published for it at that time, and increasingly elaborate instruments were made in France. Hurdy-gurdies continued to be played in rural France and eastern Europe throughout the 19th century. A more general revival began in the 20th century, especially in playing instruments of the French model. See also lira organizzata . Jeremy Montagu...

Viola d’amore

Viola d’amore   Reference library

Myron Rosenblum

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,802 words
Illustration(s):
1

...d’amore wide exposure. Hindemith’s Kammermusik no.6 for viola d’amore and chamber orchestra (1927) and Kleine Sonate for viola d’amore and piano (1923) and Frank Martin’s Sonata da chiesa for viola d’amore and organ (1938) were the first major 20th-century compositions for viola d’amore. Numerous other 20th-century composers included the instrument in operas and chamber music. The Viola d’Amore Society of America was created in 1977. Its activities focus on frequent international congresses, yearly newsletters, fostering editions of old and new music,...

counterpoint

counterpoint   Reference library

Arnold Whittall

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,791 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and the rhythmic conventions of tonal counterpoint. In any case, many 20th-century composers of post-tonal music alluded to the contrapuntal strategies of earlier times, from cantus-firmus-based polyphony to canon and fugue, in ways which make determined efforts to free such procedures from the constraints of traditional tonal voice-leading, while not suggesting that the resulting polyphony is merely arbitrary, governed by no elements of aural discrimination. In this respect, 20th-century counterpoint, like that of Peter Maxwell *Davies , has more in...

harmony

harmony   Reference library

Arnold Whittall

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,872 words
Illustration(s):
3

...functions in tonal composition was fully realized only in the 20th century when Heinrich Schenker gave priority to basic, background contrapuntal processes in determining those structures ( see analysis (3) ). The notion that the chordal progressions and relations on the musical surface, with all their particular doublings, spacings, and instrumental colourings, were less significant, less essential, than elemental two-voice fundamental structures was one of the most radical formulations of 20th-century music theory, and its presentation by Schenker was...

Ring modulator

Ring modulator   Reference library

Richard Orton

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
941 words
Illustration(s):
1

...which he began to use in 1977, altered ring modulation, frequency and amplification to vary the sounds of a live performer. Known colloquially as the ‘fuzz box’, the ring modulator has also been extensively and imaginatively employed in ‘electric jazz’ and in pop music. Some late 20th- and early 21st-century ring modulators use digital signal processing techniques, multiplying the two signals in the time domain instead of the frequency domain. Virtual ring modulators are common in many digitally implemented virtual analogue synthesizer modules such as Abakos,...

Ḍhol

Ḍhol (General)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
510 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (General) Common two-faced drum with many versions in different regions. Made of wood, the ḍhol is mostly used in folk music. Its barrel is usually about 18–20 inches in length and 12 inches in diameter. The playing faces have membranes of animal skin which can be tightened with chords running across the body on the outer side. It can be played with hands or sticks; the latter are preferred. A paste of boiled rice and wood-ash is applied on the edges of the playing faces to produce better resonance. Sometimes the left side is left out altogether and the...

Koto

Koto   Reference library

W. Adriaansz and Henry Johnson

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,610 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(short 21-string), teion-nijūgen (or tei-nijūgen : bass, 20 strings), teion-nijūgogen (bass, 25 strings), nijūgen (20 strings), sanjūgen (30 strings), and poppukōn (popcorn: 17 strings). These instruments are often used in ensemble playing of contemporary music, although the jūshichigen, nijūgen , and sanjūgen are especially well-known examples of new and larger koto that are also played as solo instruments. Interestingly, the term nijūgen is used for a range of larger koto that have 20 to 25 strings. For discussion of koto music, schools of performance...

harmonic series

harmonic series   Reference library

Anthony Baines and John Borwick

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
475 words
Illustration(s):
1

...scale and the harmonic series (cent values shown in parentheses) equal temperament harmonics C (0) 1 2 4 8 16 C ♯ (100) 17 (105) D (200) 9 (204) 18 E ♭ (300) 19 (298) E (400) 5 (386) 10 20 F (500) 21 (471) 11 (551) 22 F ♯ (600) 23 (628) G (700) 3 (702) 6 12 24 G ♯ (800) 13 (840) A (900) B ♭ (1000) 7 (969) 14 B (1100) 15 (1088) c (1200)...

key signature

key signature   Reference library

Percy Scholes and Judith Nagley

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
496 words
Illustration(s):
1

...often written with one less flat and in major keys with one less sharp in the signature than is normal today, the ‘missing’ accidentals appearing regularly in the course of a piece where modern notation would include them in the key signature. In the late 19th century and the 20th, chromaticism and atonality contributed to the demise of the key signature's usefulness. At the same time, some composers experimented with ‘hybrid’ signatures, including both sharps and flats, to draw attention to special features of tonality in their music. See also accidental...

cymbals

cymbals   Reference library

Jeremy Montagu

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
416 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cymbals (Fr.: cymbales ; Ger.: Becken ; It.: piatti , cinelli ). Bowls or concave plates of bronze ( c. 80% copper and 20% tin). Individual cymbals may be suspended on a stand or a cord and struck with a stick or other implement; pairs may be clashed together. Evidence of cymbals goes back to the 2nd millennium bc in Anatolia and the Middle East. These were often quite small (5–15 cm in diameter); the smaller instruments were sometimes fixed to the ends of wooden or metal tongs, as are the modern Turkish zilli massa . Cymbals were used throughout Europe...

ground

ground   Reference library

Percy Scholes and Judith Nagley

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
500 words
Illustration(s):
1

...under the more specific title of chaconne or passacaglia (e.g. the finale of Brahms's Fourth Symphony or Britten's Passacaglia from the Four Sea Interludes from Peter Grimes ). The ground, together with related ostinato and passacaglia techniques, held some fascination for 20th-century composers, particularly those interested in neo-classicism, notably Bartók (Concerto for Orchestra and many of the piano pieces in Mikrokosmos ), Stravinsky ( Symphony of Psalms , Cantata), Hindemith (piano and organ music), and Britten . Percy Scholes / Judith...

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