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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

The Taming of the Shrew

The Taming of the Shrew   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,052 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...his wedding to Bianca and Hortensio’s to the Widow; after the three brides leave the chamber, each husband bets 20 crowns that his wife will return most obediently when summoned. Bianca and the Widow refuse to come, but Katherine comes immediately, and at Petruccio’s bidding fetches the other two wives, throws off her hat, and preaches a long homily on wifely obedience, thereby winning him the wager. A delighted Baptista adds another 20,000 crowns to Petruccio’s winnings. (In The Taming of a Shrew , Sly, now asleep, is put back into his own clothes and...

Troilus and Cressida

Troilus and Cressida   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,065 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of different accounts: George Chapman’s translation Seven Books of the Iliads of Homer (from which Shakespeare drew the character of Thersites, though not his actions); William Caxton ’s Recuyell of the Histories of Troy ( 1475 ) and John Lydgate ’s Troy Book ( c. 1412–20 ), both derived from a common Italian original (these supplied material for most of the play’s battle scenes and the debate in Troy, among much else); and Ovid ’s Metamorphoses (from which Shakespeare derived his opposition between the intelligent Ulysses and the ‘blockish’...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...subject, Cleopatra , published in 1607 , and in Barnabe Barnes’s play The Devil’s Charter , acted by the King’s Men in February 1607 , so in all probability Antony and Cleopatra enjoyed its first performances late in 1606 . It was entered in the Stationers’ Register on 20 May 1608 . Text: Despite this entry, the play was not printed until the publication of the First Folio in 1623 , which provides the only authoritative text. It seems to have been printed from a good transcript of Shakespeare’s own foul papers , though not a Promptbook : although...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...violating poetic justice. During the 19th century and the first part of the 20th much criticism of the play was similarly dedicated to showing how and why it was inferior to the earlier tragedies, with A. C. Bradley commenting on the critical distance Shakespeare maintains between audience and characters by ironic humour and Harley Granville-Barker praising the play’s supreme, focused craftsmanship at the expense of its vitality. Frank Harris pioneered one recurrent strain in 20th-century criticism in The Women in Shakespeare ( 1911 ) when he claimed...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...national fertility, an ancient but undying personification of the English people—the play has usually been discussed in relation to Shakespeare’s view of history, and to 16th-century views of national destiny more generally. The Second Tetralogy has often been seen, from the early 20th century onwards, as showing England’s fall from Richard II’s lost Eden and its providential reunification and redemption under Henry V, a view associated particularly with E. M. W. Tillyard . He and subsequent commentators have pointed out that the England of 1 Henry IV seems...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...events at will. The Lupercal and the Ides of March, for example, which in the play seem to be successive days, are actually a month apart ( see Calendar, Shakespeare ’s), while the battle of Philippi was actually two battles, the deaths of Cassius and Brutus separated by 20 days rather than the few hours which seem to intervene in the play. Plutarch, however, supplies only the barest summaries of the speeches made at Caesar’s funeral by Brutus and Antony, the latter of which becomes the turning point of Shakespeare’s play, as well as one of the most...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...between those who insist that Shakespeare was exposing his Christians’ hypocrisy rather than attacking Judaism, and those who claim that all Elizabethans were automatically anti-Semitic and would have found Shylock’s torments hilarious, continues to this day, though since the early 20th century accounts of Shylock’s significance (such as that offered by Auden in 1948 ) have been more inclined to see him in thematic relation to the play’s other outsider, Antonio. Antonio’s erotically charged patron–client relationship with Bassanio has come under considerable...

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the play’s performance history, and are probably authorial. Sources: Most of the plot is Shakespeare’s own invention, though the play draws on a number of literary sources. The most important is Chaucer ’s Knight’s Tale, to which Shakespeare would return, with Fletcher , nearly 20 years later, dramatizing it as The Two Noble Kinsmen . Chaucer’s story provides the basis for Shakespeare’s depiction of Theseus and Hippolyta’s marriage, which it juxtaposes, furthermore, with a rivalry between two men for the same woman, source for the competition between...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a predatory arachnid was unforgettably enhanced by the black crutches on which he scuttled and swung across the stage. Reg Wilson ©Royal Shakespeare Company Text: The play first appeared in a quarto edition in 1598 (known as Q1), after being entered in the Stationers’ Register on 20 October. This was followed by five more editions derived successively from Q1, which most scholars believe was reconstructed from memory by players who originally performed it (probably the Chamberlain’s Men , Shakespeare’s company, when they went on provincial tour in summer ...

Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,098 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...his infatuation with Rosaline. Despite his mask he is recognized by Tybalt, whom Capulet has to restrain from challenging him. Romeo accosts Juliet and begs a kiss, subsequently learning her identity from the Nurse before he and his friends depart. Juliet similarly learns his. 2.0 The Chorus speaks of the mutual love of Romeo and Juliet, which they will pursue despite the dangers posed by their parents’ enmity. 2.1 Returning from the feast, Romeo doubles back, concealing himself despite the mocking summons of Benvolio and Mercutio. Hidden, he sees Juliet...

The Two Noble Kinsmen

The Two Noble Kinsmen   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,335 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...not only Pericles but Thomas Heywood ’s The Golden Age , The Silver Age , and The Brazen Age . Critical history: Although some 19th-century critics accepted the quarto’s attribution, The Two Noble Kinsmen was generally accepted into the Shakespeare canon only in the 20th century, and much critical writing about it continues to be preoccupied with the question of its authorship. Its restoration to the Shakespeare corpus, however, coincided with modernism ’s high valuation for the complexities of Shakespeare’s later style and with the ritual...

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,261 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...with the Ghost particularly sublime, and were above all preoccupied with the Prince’s apparent paralysis of will, Coleridge and Hazlitt reflecting on the relations between thought and action in ways heavily influenced by Goethe and Schlegel . From then until the late 20th century much writing about the play was dominated by the question of Hamlet’s character, his sanity or otherwise, and why he delays. A. C. Bradley influentially found the core of the play’s power in its juxtaposition of the scope of human thought with the limitations of...

Macbeth

Macbeth   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,275 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...( London Magazine , 1823 ). Following Coleridge , many 19th-century critics examined how Shakespeare created the play’s distinctive atmosphere: A. C. Bradley , for example, in Shakespearean Tragedy ( 1904 ), pursued the play’s recurrent references to darkness, anticipating 20th-century discussions (by Spurgeon and others) of its imagery of blood. This increased sense of the play’s literary technique led to an impatience with earlier, realist accounts of its plot and characters, famously voiced in L. C. Knights ’s 1933 essay ‘How Many Children Had...

The Tempest

The Tempest   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,078 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...and colonialism by the 1840s, when the Brough brothers’ burlesque The Enchanted Isle depicted Caliban as a black abolitionist who sings the ‘Marseillaise’, and Charlotte Barnes hybridized the play (in The Forest Princess , 1844 ) with the story of Pocahontas. During the 20th century this view would be developed by many anti-colonial writers, particularly Octave Mannoni in East Africa , and would become a commonplace of cultural materialist and new historicist criticism from the 1970s onwards. The extent to which the play, though set in the...

Othello

Othello   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,092 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... Joseph Quincy Adams ) found the play’s depiction of interracial marriage objectionable (and even Coleridge refused to see Othello as black, preferring to envisage him as an aristocratic Arab), most 19th-century critics found Othello convincingly noble. It was only in the 20th century, when T. S. Eliot took issue with A. C. Bradley ’s account of the play, that some began to adopt Iago’s view of Othello as a bombastic self-deceiver. This argument between pro- and anti-Othello factions has now been largely displaced by the discussion of Shakespeare...

arms, Shakespeare’s coat of

arms, Shakespeare’s coat of   Reference library

Stanley Wells

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
319 words
Illustration(s):
1

...acting for his father, applied to the College of Heralds for a coat of arms, conferring upon him and his descendants the status of gentleman. Two surviving drafts of a document prepared by William Dethick , Garter king-of-arms, dated 20 October grant the request. A note indicates that John had initiated a similar application 20 years before, that he was a justice of the peace in Stratford and had served as bailiff, that he had ‘lands and tenements of good wealth and substance, £500’, and that he had married ‘a daughter and heir of Arden, a gentleman of...

Family Shakespeare

Family Shakespeare   Reference library

R. A. Foakes

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
275 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Shakespeare . The Revd Thomas Bowdler ( 1754–1825 ) published the 10-volume ‘Family Shakespeare’ in 1818 under his own name, completing the 20-play edition published anonymously by his sister in 1807 . His stated object was to remove from the works ‘only those words and expressions which cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family’. In practice, he (in collaboration with his unmarried sister Henrietta , whose name was kept off the title pages lest her reputation suffer) cut any passage which in his view smacked of obscenity. So, for example, he...

Fuseli, Henry

Fuseli, Henry (1741–1825)   Reference library

Catherine Tite

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
327 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( 1790 , Tate Gallery) display the artist’s aptitude for mythic narrative and his idiosyncratic approach to human physiognomy. Fuseli’s treatment of the human figure was heavily criticized in the popular press, who slandered many of Fuseli’s exhibits as the works of a madman. On 20 April 1785 , the Morning Post and Daily Advertiser wrote of Fuseli’s Mandrake , ‘here is genius run mad, and however strange his witches, their daughters seem more fashionable beings’. The artist ceased to produce paintings for the Shakespeare Gallery after 1790 , considering...

illustrations

illustrations   Reference library

Catherine Tite

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
316 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Quarto , 1864 , illustrated by H. C. Selous , which included fictional Shakespearian mises-en-scène , also published in the Illustrated London News to promote the edition. Reasons for the decrease in, and eventual disappearance of, illustrated versions of the plays during the 20th century are difficult to ascertain, though the genre survives after a fashion further downmarket in the strip-cartoon edition. One of the earliest illustrations to Shakespeare, the frontispiece to The Tempest in Rowe’s edition (1709). The artist has been so heavily influenced...

Robin Goodfellow

Robin Goodfellow   Reference library

Anne Button

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
286 words
Illustration(s):
1

...when he accidentally enchants Lysander instead of Demetrius. ( See also fairies .) In the 19th century it was a woman’s part (sometimes a girl’s— Ellen Terry took the role aged 8), often hampered by attempts at rendering magic and flying through cumbersome machinery. In the 20th century the part has been played more often by men since Granville-Barker ’s 1914 production (in which Puck was played by Donald Calthrop). A notable exception was Angela Laurier, the French contortionist, who took the part in Robert Lepage ’s 1992 production. Male Pucks...

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