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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Ogam

Ogam   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... or Ogham The alphabet in use among the ancient Irish and British peoples. There were 20 characters, each of which was composed of a number (from one to five) of thin strokes arranged and grouped above, below or across a horizontal line. The word is connected with Ogma, the name of a Gaulish god, likened to hercules by Lucian, who performed his feats through eloquence and the gift of languages. See also rune...

Transpacific Femininities

Transpacific Femininities   Reference library

Denise Cruz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
6,907 words
Illustration(s):
3

...by a recurring statistic: just as tens of thousands of men migrated to the United States in the first few decades of the 20th century , so were these years also accompanied by relatively few numbers of Asian women. Accounts of early- 20th-century Asian American experience, then, necessarily foregrounded literature that focused on communities of bachelor men, paper sons, and migrant laborers. In contrast, the second half of the 20th century was characterized by feminist and queer interventions into both this history of immigration and the politics of...

Comedy, Humor, and Asian American Representation

Comedy, Humor, and Asian American Representation   Reference library

Caroline Kyungah Hong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
11,355 words
Illustration(s):
5

...still stereotypical: For example, several sitcoms in the mid- 20th century featured “the stock Chinese bachelor character, a social type that has its origins in the discriminatory immigration policies of the late 19th century .” 24 But some of these parts were played by Chinese American performers who managed to seize some comic agency and transcend the stereotype of the obsequious Chinese servant, such as Sammee Tong, who played Peter Tong on Bachelor Father ( 1957–1962 ). 25 The mid- 20th century also saw the release of one of the first Hollywood...

Asians and Asian Americans and the Performing Arts Prior to World War II

Asians and Asian Americans and the Performing Arts Prior to World War II   Reference library

Krystyn R. Moon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
7,082 words
Illustration(s):
8

...These productions evolved to reflect Asian immigrant experiences and sometimes incorporated American forms of musical, dance, and theatrical expression. By the early 20th century , this mix of traditions reached beyond immigrant communities as Asians and Asian Americans became part of the American entertainment industry. Early-20th-Century Entertainment Industry By the beginning of the 20th century , the American entertainment industry became more diversified and embraced new performance styles and technologies. The types of acts seen in the 19th...

Asian American Art and Modernism

Asian American Art and Modernism   Reference library

Tom Wolf

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
9,358 words
Illustration(s):
22

...American Art and Modernism The history of Asian American and Pacific Island art in the 20th century has been attracting increasing numbers of scholars thanks to its richness, its expansiveness, and the fact that it has been relatively unexplored. The term “Asian American” was first created in 1968 and has been gaining momentum ever since. Asian American artists have tended to be marginalized in mainstream accounts of 20th-century American art but, in developments that are analogous in scholarship about African American, Hispanic, and women artists,...

Global South Korea and the K-Pop Phenomenon

Global South Korea and the K-Pop Phenomenon   Reference library

Crystal S. Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
6,814 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Idol Girl Group Flows in Japan in the Era of Web 2.0.” ejcjs 12, no. 2 (2012). Kim, Jeong-mee . “ Why Does Hallyu Matter? The Significance of the Korea Wave in South Korea .” Critical Studies in Television 2, no. 2 (2007): 47–59. Kim, Jung . “The Political Logic of Economic Crisis in South Korea.” Asian Survey 45, no. 3 (2005): 453–474. Kwon, Seung-ho , and Joseph Kim . “ The Cultural Industry Policies of the Korean Government and the Korean Wave .” International Journal of Cultural Policy 20, no. 4 (2014): 422–439. Lee, Jamie Shinhee . “Linguistic...

Human Rights and Asian American Literature and Culture

Human Rights and Asian American Literature and Culture   Reference library

Crystal Parikh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
8,217 words
Illustration(s):
4

...from Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries . Furthermore, the Supreme Court overturned attempts to deny birthright citizenship to the children of such immigrants, such as in the 1898 decision of United States v. Wong Kim Ark . Nevertheless, the many anti-Asian legal measures, along with the experience of social segregation, racist violence, and harsh economic and labor conditions, had the effect of severely restricting national belonging for Asian migrants and their children throughout much of the 20th century . This was perhaps nowhere as...

Yellowface Performance: Historical and Contemporary Contexts

Yellowface Performance: Historical and Contemporary Contexts   Reference library

Josephine Lee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
9,420 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Gilbert and Sullivan’s opera, China, or Tricks Upon Travelers , performed at Mitchell’s Olympic Extravaganza in 1841 , featured white actors in the roles of “Ching Chong Chow” and “Fouchafee” as well as other characters named Prince Pretty Pill, Pig-Taili, and Skidamalink. 20 Nonetheless, the success of The Mikado paved the way for other successful productions to be brought to the United States from the London stage, such as Sidney Jones’s The Geisha ( 1896 ) and George Dance’s A Chinese Honeymoon ( 1899 ); it also encouraged shows written and...

Asian Americans in Opera: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

Asian Americans in Opera: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives   Reference library

Nancy Yunhwa Rao

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
11,374 words
Illustration(s):
10

...imagined Chinese opera took many different forms: dramatic works using Chinese opera as a source of inspiration, musical dramas emulating elements of Chinese opera, or Western-style operas with Chinese themes or plotlines. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th , a large number of plays and operatic compositions featuring Asian characters and stories, enacted in yellowface, appeared in American venues ranging from school halls to Broadway theaters to the Metropolitan Opera House. Depicting fictitious Chinese or oriental tropes, these...

The View from Another Shore: An Island-Specific Approach to Literary Criticism

The View from Another Shore: An Island-Specific Approach to Literary Criticism   Reference library

Seri I. Luangphinith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
11,600 words
Illustration(s):
5

...which may explain why the number of persons in poverty is also higher, at 18.1 percent versus 11.4 percent. 20 Not surprisingly, Hawai‘i County also leads the state in terms of families at risk: 14.1 percent for the island as opposed to O‘ahu (6.5 percent), Kaua‘i (7.3 percent), and Maui (7.7 percent), of which for families headed by a female with children, 45–49 percent fall into the poverty bracket as opposed to 27–28 percent for O‘ahu, 20–22 percent for Kaua‘i, and 25–33 percent for Maui. 21 This is also the only island that has had to bear numerous...

Circumventing Racialism through Mulataje

Circumventing Racialism through Mulataje   Reference library

José F. Buscaglia-Salgado

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Literature, Literary texts, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
8,853 words
Illustration(s):
5

...mixed” population of Hispaniola as a precondition for establishing large-scale sugar production based on the French model in Saint-Domingue. 3 The rise of postcolonial regimes and the establishment of Creole republics throughout the Western Hemisphere during the 19th and 20th centuries would promote nationalist discourses that continued to uphold the notion that “mixed peoples” exist along a continuum of good and evil subjects. “Mulatto-phobia” would be a fundamental principle informing debates on citizenship and civilization in postcolonial nations...

Contemporary Asian American Art

Contemporary Asian American Art   Reference library

Laura Kina

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
12,679 words
Illustration(s):
28

...It pleads for social justice, respect, and tolerance through the use of caricature and satire. 62 Figure 20. Wafaa Bilal, Domestic Tension , 2007. Performance copyright Wafaa Bilal. Courtesy of Driscoll Babcock Galleries. This image was reproduced in Wafaa Bilal and Kari Lydersen, Shoot an Iraqi: Art, Life and Resistance under the Gun (San Francisco: City Lights, 2008). In Shoot an Iraqi (also known as Domestic Tension , 2007 ) ( Figure 20 ), Wafaa Bilal ( b. 1966 )—an Iraqi Gulf War refugee whose brother was killed by a US drone strike in...

Sino Caribbean Performance and Music

Sino Caribbean Performance and Music   Reference library

Tzarina T. Prater

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
8,180 words
Illustration(s):
1

...begin in earnest in the mid 1800s. 4 According to historian Walton Look Lai, the total Asian migration to the Caribbean region from the late 18th to the early 20th centuries constituted a small fraction of a larger dispersal of Asian labor, with the bulk of laborers going to Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, and British Guiana. 5 The majority of “Asians” who migrated to the Caribbean before the 20th century were from the southeastern, Fujian and Guangdong, regions of China and from a subset of the Han ethnic group, the Hakka, whose name literally means...

Mixed-Race Asian Americans and Contemporary Media and Culture

Mixed-Race Asian Americans and Contemporary Media and Culture   Reference library

Leilani Nishime

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
7,930 words
Illustration(s):
6

...over time and context to provide insight into the social function of Asian American racialization. Oberon’s star narrative emerges in three different eras of US visual culture, each situated in the dominant visual media of its time. During Hollywood film’s domination of early 20th-century visual culture, Oberon first made her name in period dramas as a prototypical British beauty. Then in the 1980s, she re-entered the public imagination after the publication of the book Queenie , a fictionalized biography. The book led to a television miniseries of the...

Print Culture and Censorship from Colonial Latin America to the US Latina/o Presence in the 19TH Century

Print Culture and Censorship from Colonial Latin America to the US Latina/o Presence in the 19TH Century   Reference library

Matthew J. K.Hill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Literature, Literary texts, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
30,368 words
Illustration(s):
9

... 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries . His bibliographical collections and historical essays on the development of the printing press in the Spanish empire, together with his works on the history of the Inquisition in Peru, New Spain, and Cartagena, are all essential reading. 245 For the Inquisition one of the basic texts is Henry Charles Lea’s The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies ( 1908 ). 246 The work of these scholars reflects the influence of prevalent belief about the colonial period in the 19th and early 20th centuries that Spain,...

Filipino American Literature

Filipino American Literature   Reference library

Jeffrey Arellano Cabusao

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
11,564 words
Illustration(s):
2

...—once a derogatory racist term for Filipinos in the United States—to signify a unique Filipino American literary voice and identity forged in spite of racism. While the Flip writers’ assessment acknowledges the history of US colonization of the Philippines at the turn of the 20th century , their privileging of US-born Filipino writers over those born in the Philippines reinforces the unequal relations of power between the United States and the Philippines. This particular perspective by the Flip writers unwittingly reproduces the colonial logic of...

Border and la frontera in the US-Mexico Borderlands

Border and la frontera in the US-Mexico Borderlands   Reference library

Alicia Arrizón

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Literature, Literary texts, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
10,925 words
Illustration(s):
1

...collective voices of the millions of migrant workers who enter the United States from Mexico in search of a better life. Similarly in Heart of Aztlán ( 1976 ), a novel by Rudolfo Anaya, the notion of pilgrimage is an obvious theme that recurs throughout the story: set in a mid- 20th-century New Mexico barrio, Anaya evokes an intersection of myth, magic, and migration. 18 Aztlán is fictionalized as an ideological construct manifested in the search of place and identity. This ideological construct is fundamentally the pretext in the new expanded edition of ...

US Central Americans in Art and Visual Culture

US Central Americans in Art and Visual Culture   Reference library

Kency Cornejo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Literature, Literary texts, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
11,263 words
Illustration(s):
7

...and is a growing field. Various US Central American artists with established artistic careers who reveal the unique Central American experience in the United States were introduced in the first historical scholarly article solely dedicated to art produced by US Central Americans. 20 The article featured art by Guadalupe Maravilla (formerly known as Irvin Morazán), whose performances reference his migratory experiences as a child in relation to spirituality and healing; Victor Cartagena’s installations on migrant abuse through labor demands and memory; Paul...

New Orleans and Asian American Literature/Culture

New Orleans and Asian American Literature/Culture   Reference library

Marguerite Nguyen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
9,799 words
Illustration(s):
1

...about 1866 to 1868 to work on plantations along the Mississippi River. Their presence resulted in the creation of ethnic clusters that led Asians to become a distinct and discussed local ethnic group by the 1870s. 20 As the cultural geographer Richard Campanella outlines, two Chinatowns developed in New Orleans from the late 19th to early 20th centuries , but they eventually disappeared and left few signs of their existence. Similar to the still-ambiguous history of the Manilamen, the narrative of early Chinese American presence in New Orleans is so faint...

Indigenous Manuscripts of Ancient and Early Colonial Mesoamerica: 13th–16th Centuries

Indigenous Manuscripts of Ancient and Early Colonial Mesoamerica: 13th–16th Centuries   Reference library

Angélica J. Afanador-Pujol

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Literature, Literary texts, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
12,818 words
Illustration(s):
4

...their resemblance to this manuscript. In addition to the Codex Borgia, the group includes the codices Cospi, Laud, Vaticanus B, Fejérváry-Mayer ( Figure 1 ), and the Culto al Sol (a single sheet also known as Aubin 20 or Codex Fonds Mexicanus 20, housed at the Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris). 19 For facsimiles, see the location given in note 20. 20 While they represent a small corpus, they provide the most comprehensive documentation of religious beliefs, deities, and practices by indigenous authors. They connect believers to the passage of time through a 260-day...

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