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Pause Reference library
...of pause in poetry is one of unexpected complexity because any answer implies far-reaching assumptions. In general, temporal theories of meter are amenable to including pause as a structural feature, while stress theories are more likely to relegate pause to performance . Some 20th-c. descriptions of Old Germanic meter posited a regular pause in alliterative verse ( see alliteration ), but few current approaches to the older poetry have found a justification for it. There are essentially three kinds of pause, the first being perhaps a universal feature of...
Jazz Poetry Reference library
M. D. Jones
...Poetry . The diverse range of instrumental and vocal music categorized as jazz (and its precursor and counterpart, blues ) functioned throughout much of the 20th c. as a colorful symbol, a structuring principle, and a totalizing—and tantalizing—trope for writers, filmmakers, visual artists, and even (when considering the age of art deco) architects. Jazz has greatly influenced other literary genres such as the novel (consider Ralph Ellison ’s treatment of Louis Armstrong in Invisible Man or Toni Morrison ’s signifying on “The Trombone Blues” in...
Rubāʿī Reference library
F. D. Lewis
...can thus be parsed both as a four-line poem (rubāʿī) by counting miṣrāʿs and as a two-line form ( du-baytī ) by counting bayts: The terms rubāʿī and du-baytī are not, however, interchangeable. Rubāʿī quatrains conform to a unique meter not used for other verse forms, its 20 morae usu. resolving as a 13-syllable pattern, either – – ᴗ ᴗ – – ᴗ ᴗ – – ᴗ ᴗ – or – – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – ᴗ – – ᴗ ᴗ –. But since one long may replace two consecutive breves, possible permutations allow as few as 10 syllables. The du-baytī quatrain, by contrast, is composed in a canonical...
Foot Reference library
A. M. Devine, L. D. Stephens, T.V.F. Brogan, and G. B. Cooper
...analyses of extended passages of lyric verse; even in antiquity, there were various not completely compatible accounts. Attempts in the 19th c. to interpret ancient theory and apply it to lyric verse, particularly to aeolic meters, did not achieve satisfactory results. In the 20th c., cl. prosodists have generally rejected both the reality and the descriptive utility of the foot in favor of units defined strictly in terms of responsion such as the metron (double the length of the simple feet in some meters and indistinguishable in others) and the ...
Classical Meters in Modern Languages Reference library
... also experimented with accentual cl. imitations, as have many 20th-c. poets, incl. Ezra Pound , Louis MacNeice , and W. H. Auden . Rus. accentual imitations also date from the latter part of the 18th c.; Vasily Trediakovsky ’s hexameters were particularly influential, and a number of poets, incl. Alexander Pushkin , used the form in the 19th c., esp. for trans. The accentual pattern that is produced is close to that of the dol’nik , a folk meter that became important in the 20th c. It. imitations present a somewhat different picture, since the...
Bridge Reference library
A. M. Devine and L. D. Stephens
...der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1884) ; L. Havet , Cours élémentaire de métrique grecque et latine (1896); Wilamowitz; A. D. Knox , “The Early Iambus,” Philologus 87 (1932); Maas; A. W. Bulloch , “A Callimachean Refinement of the Greek Hexameter,” CQ 20 (1970); Allen; A. M. Devine and L. D. Stephens , “Bridges in the Iambographers,” Greek, Roman, Byzantine Studies 22 (1981); and Language and Metre (1984); Snell; West. A. M. Devine ; L. D....
Alexandrine Reference library
...outil, son bec impur” (Each [bird] planting his unclean beak as if it were a tool; “Un voyage à Cythère,” Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du mal , 1857 ). Experiments with the alexandrine (but also with the decasyllable) led to the emergence of vers libre (free verse) at the turn of the 20th c. But in spite of free verse’s liberties, poets have maintained a system of echoes and resemblances with the alexandrine, which remains the most prominent poetic line in Fr. See french prosody , syllabic verse . Bibliography G. Lote , L’Alexandrin d’après la phonétique...
Scansion Reference library
...those involving letters, musical notes, numbers, and graphic representations. However, a simple group of symbols has generally held sway. Prior to the 20th c., Eng. prosodists usually signify metrically unaccented syllables with the breve ( ᴗ ) cl. prosodists use to register short syllables. When signifying metrically accented syllables, they employ the macron ( – ) cl. prosodists apply to long ones. During the 20th c., the breve and macron give way to an x for metrically unaccented syllables and an acute accent (’ ) for metrically accented ones. This shift...
Arabic Prosody Reference library
...unused ( muḍāriʿ–muqtaḍab ), and mutadārik was included despite the fact that it was never used by Ar. poets. The ʿArūḍ system was adopted by Heb., Persian, and Turkish poetry and has undergone serious changes in the process of adaptation to a different prosodic matter. In the 20th c., Ar. poetry witnessed a shift away from the ʿArūḍ metrics to free verse . Bibliography G. W. Freytag , Darstellung der Arabischen Verskunst (1830) ; S. Guyard , “Théorie nouvelle de la métrique Arabe,” Journal Asiatique , ser. 7, 7, 8, 10 (1877) ; M. Hartmann , Metrum...