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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Tarkington, Booth

Tarkington, Booth   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
504 words
Illustration(s):
1

...who will become an assertive man. Mark Twain 's Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn are the paradigmatic “good bad boys,” but it is arguable that Penrod Scofield took Tom and Huck's place in the early decades of the 20th century . As the “worst boy in town,” Penrod (and his older analog, Willie Baxter in Seventeen ) is an apt representation of the early 20th-century boy, for he stands bestride not only the two centuries, but also the move from an agrarian economy to an industrial one, the move from a rural society to an urban one, and he embodies the era's...

Egielski, Richard

Egielski, Richard   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
442 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Then he met an unconventional author, Arthur Yorinks . Their unusual, highly successful collaboration—working closely on experimental designs—produced eight offbeat picture books. Sendak praised the first, Sid and Sol ( 1977 ), a tall tale drama set in black-and-white mid-20th-century scenes as an unlikely short hero nonchalantly defeats a giant. Hey, Al ( 1986 ) won a Caldecott Medal for its colorful, realistic watercolors of a city janitor and dog visiting a fantasy paradise. The surreal transformation tale Louis the Fish ( 1980 ) turns a...

Cooney, Barbara

Cooney, Barbara   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
553 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Barbara ( 1917–2000 ), American illustrator and author of children's books. Cooney became one of the 20th century's most prolific illustrators for children. Born in Brooklyn, she came from a long line of artists on her mother's side, and her father was a stockbroker who provided his family with a comfortable living. She studied art history at Smith College, and in 1940 she attended the Art Students League. Book illustration, she believed, was best suited to what she modestly judged to be her limited talent. She began illustrating children's books with...

Portugal

Portugal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
562 words
Illustration(s):
1

...form character and influence the mind. Children's newspapers appeared at the same time. This propitious evolution, however, affected a minority of children, since three quarters of Portuguese children were still illiterate at the end of the 19th century . At the beginning of the 20th century , one of the key figures in the development of Portuguese children's literature was Henrique Marques Júnior . A children's author himself, he translated many foreign texts for children ( Hans Christian Andersen , the Brothers Grimm , Charles Perrault , the Countess of...

Switzerland

Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
588 words
Illustration(s):
1

...genre of the Alpine novel, in which the idyllic atmosphere of the Swiss mountains is omnipresent. In Heidi ( 1881 ; English trans., 1884 ), another internationally known Swiss children's book, Spyri depicted the life and adventures of a Swiss country girl in the Alps. In the 20th century the Geistige Landesverteidigung (Spiritual Defense of the Country) strongly influenced children's literature from the 1930s on. Jenö Marten 's adventurous detective stories taught children to accept paternal authority. The most famous picture book of the postwar years...

Claverie, Jean

Claverie, Jean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
312 words
Illustration(s):
1

...narrative structure. Claverie writes and illustrates his own books and pays particular attention to how verbal and visual expressions complement each other, even when separated on the page. Jean Claverie . Illustration from Riquet à la houppe (Paris: Albin Michel, c. 1988), p. 20. Reproduced courtesy of the Cotsen Children's Library, Princeton University Library Claverie often develops musical themes, conveying his passion for jazz as, for example, in the Little Lou series ( 1990 and 2003 ), a coming-of-age story whose central character is a young...

Darton, F. J. Harvey

Darton, F. J. Harvey   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
377 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., being instrumental in their publication of John Masefield 's Martin Hyde ( 1906 ), as well as editing the company's children's magazines, The Prize and, more notably, Chatterbox from 1901 to 1931 . Under his editorship Chatterbox developed a style more suited to early 20th-century boys’ interests, with contributions from Masefield. Darton himself rewrote and published new editions of fables and romances such as The Seven Champions of Christendom ( 1901 ), an autobiographical novel for adults; My Father's Son ( 1913 ), a full-length biography;...

Grandville, J. -J.

Grandville, J. -J.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
359 words
Illustration(s):
1

...reinterpreted them—for example, in Louise Leneveux ’s Les animaux parlants ( Speaking Animals , 1849 ), illustrated by Louis Lassalle , and in Trim ’s Simon le poltron ( Frightened Simon , 1862 ), illustrated by Jundt . Other artists followed this tradition during the 20th century —for example, Benjamin Rabier ( Gédéon , 1923–1939 ), Félix Lorioux ( Fables of La Fontaine , 1927 ), Jean de Brunhoff ( Babar , 1931 ), and Walt Disney . Grandville also had influence on John Tenniel ’s illustrations of Lewis Carroll ’s Alice's Adventures in...

Hansel and Gretel

Hansel and Gretel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
348 words
Illustration(s):
1

...leaving the father guilt- free. In 1893 , Engelbert Humperdinck turned “Hansel and Gretel” into an opera. More recently it has been retold by Robert Coover ( 1970 ), Roald Dahl ( 1989 ), and Emma Donoghue ( 1997 ). Anthony Browne illustrated the tale with a 20th-century setting in 1981 . See also Fairy Tales and Folk Tales ; Grimm, Jacob, and Wilhelm Grimm ; and biographies of figures mentioned in this article. Vanessa Joosen Böhm-Korff, Regina . Deutung und Bedeutung von “Hänsel und Gretel.” Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang,...

Innocenti, Roberto

Innocenti, Roberto   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
389 words
Illustration(s):
1

...palette expresses the inescapable tragedy. Ranging from humorous to grieving, Innocenti's illustrations combine sophisticated techniques with clarity, subtle color, and a fine graphic line: he has a precise eye for period detail (including the technology of the first half of the 20th century —motor cars, trains, airplanes) and for period styles of depiction (giving a gentle air of caricature). Innocenti uses color emotively, and dramatically varies his viewpoint. In L’ultima spiagga ( The Last Resort , 2002 ), a postmodernist fable by J. Patrick Lewis ...

Prelutsky, Jack

Prelutsky, Jack   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
335 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Jack ( 1940 –), American poet for children, born and raised in the Bronx in New York City. Prelutsky has been credited with revitalizing poetry for children in the latter half of the 20th century . As a child, Prelutsky was brilliant and multitalented; especially noted for his beautiful singing voice, for a time he wanted to be an opera singer. Curiously, poetry was not among his early loves. He briefly attended Hunter College, but dropped out to pursue the more exciting bohemian life in Greenwich Village. Among other things, he dabbled in...

Mystery and Detective Fiction

Mystery and Detective Fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...detective stories such as Dashiell Hammett 's work in the early 20th century . Poe's and Doyle's popularity led to the founding of the London Detective Club, fostered by the writer G.  K. Chesterton in the 1920s. Readers also had heroes in series fiction published as dime novels; the best-known and perhaps longest-lasting was the Nick Carter series, beginning in the 1860s in America and passing through several transformations into novel and even radio series through the early to mid-20th century . Nancy Drew Mystery . Front cover of The Mystery of the...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
796 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on May 15, 1948 , by a majority vote of the United Nations in the area roughly encompassing the Jewish state of biblical times. Bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Israel has a population of about 6.6 million. Hebrew is spoken by 80 percent of the population; the remaining 20 percent speak Arabic. English is taught as a second language. Israel has experienced a series of wars with and terrorist attacks from neighboring countries that do not recognize its right to exist. Israeli Author and Publisher Bialik . Illustration by R. Markus-Shalit and A. Beham...

Trease, Geoffrey

Trease, Geoffrey   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
759 words
Illustration(s):
1

...stories considered the complex and difficult questions of loyalties during the English civil war in the mid-17th century . Trease's writing is spare, well paced, and free from the archaic language customary in historical novels, making his books immediately accessible to 20th- century readers. He permitted his young heroes and heroines access to famous historical characters, and in this book and the many that succeeded it, he presented a meticulously researched insight not only into the political events of the time but also into the details of...

Gruelle, Johnny

Gruelle, Johnny   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...also drew comic strips, and from about 1908 concentrated on comics for children. One of his most popular comic strip characters was Mr. Twee Deedle . Johnny Gruelle . Illustration from Raggedy Ann's Sunny Songs by Gruelle and Will Wooden (New York: Miller Music, c. 1930), p. 20. Reproduced courtesy of the Cotsen Children's Library, Princeton University Library Various versions of the origin of Raggedy Ann and Andy have circulated, but a family diary supports the story that the inspiration for Raggedy was an old rag doll that Gruelle's daughter, ...

Tenggren, Gustaf

Tenggren, Gustaf   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Gustaf ( 1896–1970 ), artist born in Vastergotland, Sweden, and regarded as one of the 20th century's finest illustrators. During his long, remarkable career Tenggren illustrated nearly fifty books with paintings or pen- and-ink drawings, creating some of children's literature's best-known images, including the canine protagonists of A Dog of Flanders ( 1924 ) and The Poky Little Puppy ( 1942 ). The latter is one of the most popular children's books of all time, with fifteen million copies sold. He illustrated Heidi ( 1923 ), The Good Earth (...

Wood Engraving

Wood Engraving   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
399 words
Illustration(s):
1

...'s Arabian Nights . In the later 19th century Edmund Evans used wood engraving for illustrations by Randolph Caldecott and Kate Greenaway . Evans developed techniques for color printing of wood engravings, contributing to the total concept of the picture book. During the 20th century other techniques for children's book illustration took precedence over wood engraving. However, there have been some fine examples of the genre, such as (in prewar America) Charles Falls 's Alphabet Book , which he produced for his own daughter, and (in postwar...

Hoffmann, Heinrich

Hoffmann, Heinrich   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,182 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Jean Petersen . “Fetching the Jingle Along: Mark Twain's Slovenly Peter .” Children's Literature Association Quarterly 20, no. 1 (1995): 36–41. Freeman, Thomas . “Heinrich Hoffmann's Struwwelpeter : An Inquiry into the Effects of Violence in Children's Literature.” Journal of Popular Culture 10, no. 4 (1997): 808–820. Stahl, J. D. “Mark Twain's Slovenly Peter in the Context of Twain and German Culture.” The Lion and the Unicorn 20, no. 2 (1996): 166–180. Zipes, Jack . Sticks and Stones: The Troublesome Success of Children's Literature from Slovenly...

Spain

Spain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,119 words
Illustration(s):
1

...house that did sterling service for the spread of children's literature in Spain, was founded. Its influence remained well into the 20th century . Calleja made available well-printed and well-illustrated, yet inexpensive, editions not just of the country's own popular tales but also of stories by Hans Christian Andersen and the Brothers Grimm , tales by E. Nesbit , and so forth. 20th Century The turn of the 20th century saw the birth of two magazines: En patufet (Tom Thumb, 1904 ) and Los chicos (The Boys, 1905 ), which served as a model...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
5,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the child stayed in the quiet of his own house and enjoyed creating his own “media” experiences. The 20th Century: Transitions into the Modern For the most part, 20th-century poetry for children relinquished didacticism for delight. Nonsense verse appeared even in periodicals for children that often relied on sentimental themes and pious appeals, such as the well-known St. Nicholas magazine ( Nov. 1873–Mar. 1940 ; some issues in 1943 ). In fact, the 20th century offered poems that play with didacticism, mock stories of incautious or unpleasant children...

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