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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Mixe-Zoquean Languages

Mixe-Zoquean Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
624 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mixe. 20,000 speakers in northeastern Oaxaca, throughout the municipality of San Juan Guichicovi, near the border of Veracruz, on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, three towns. Mixe, Juquila: also called South Central Mixe. 15,000 speakers in east central Oaxaca, including the municipalities of Juquila, Quetzaltepec, Ocotepec, and one or two other towns. Dialects are Juquila Mixe, Ocotepec Mixe. Mixe, Mazatlán: also called East Central Mixe, Tutla Mixe. 15,000 speakers in eastern Oaxaca, including seven towns. Mixe, Quetzaltepec: also called Central Mixe. 20,500...

Caddoan Languages

Caddoan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
241 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Languages . A family of the Great Plains in the United States. Figure 1. Subgrouping of Caddoan Languages LANGUAGE LIST Arikara: also called Arikari, Arikaris, Arikaree, Ree, Ris. 20 speakers remain in USA. Ethnic population: 3,000 as of 1997 . On Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota. Not inherently intelligible with Pawnee. Bilingualism in English. Most or all speakers are middle-aged or older. Arikara instructional material has been published for use in a language teaching program. Caddo: also called Kado, Caddoe, Kadohadacho. 25 speakers remain...

Meso-American Languages

Meso-American Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
791 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of a noun root and possessive pronominal affixes, as in Kaqchikel (Mayan) ru-pan ‘in it’, containing ru - ‘his, her, its’ + pan ‘stomach’ (c) Vigesimal numeral systems, with numbers composed morphologically of combinations of twenty: 30 = 20 + 10, 40 = 2 × 20, 50 = 2 × 20 + 10,100 = 5 × 20, 400 = 20 × 20 (d) Absence of verb-final word order—although MA is surrounded by S[ubject] O[bject] V[erb] languages, all languages in the area have VOS, VSO, or SVO order (e) An extensive list of semantic loan translations, e.g. ‘boa’ = ‘deer-snake’, ‘egg’ =...

Oto-Pamean Languages

Oto-Pamean Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
735 words
Illustration(s):
1

...20,000 speakers in the vicinity of Huehuetla and San Bartolo, Hidalgo; Tlachichilco and Ixhuatlán, Veracruz. 81% intelligibility with Tenango Otomí (closest), 50% with Mezquital Otomí. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 16%, 1 59%, 2 20%, 3 3%, 4 1%, 5 1%. 22% intelligibility by Ixtenco Otomí. Otomí, Temoaya: 37,000 speakers in the state of México, Temoyaya municipality and sixteen barrios, including San Pedro Arriba, San Pedro Abajo, Enthavi, Solalpan, and Jiquipilco el Viejo. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are Women: 0 0%, 1 0%, 2 20%, 3...

Southeast Solomonic Languages

Southeast Solomonic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
728 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on Malaita Island. Treated as a dialect of To'abaita. Intelligibility of the Baegu variety of To'abaita is reported to be high, but of To'abaita is much less. Bilingual level estimates for Pijin, Kwara'ae, Lau are Pijin: 0 0%, 1 0%, 2 20%, 3 60%, 4 20%; Kwara'ae: 0 0%, 1 0%, 2 50%, 3 30%, 4 20%; Lau: 0 0%, 1 0%, 2 60%, 3 20%, 4 20%. All ages. Fataleka is used in the home. Gela: also called Nggela, Florida Islands. 10,000 speakers in Gela, Florida Islands, Guadalcanal (immigrants), and Savo Islands, central Solomons. Ghari: also called Gari, Tangarare, Sughu,...

Mixtecan Languages

Mixtecan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,206 words
Illustration(s):
1

... also called Highland Guerrero Mixteco, Alacatlatzala Mixtec, To'on Savi. 20,000 speakers. Dialects are Potoichan (Ocuapa), Atlamajalcingo del Monte, Tototepec, Cuatzoquitengo. 65% to 85% intelligibility with Metlatonoc Mixteco. Some had 70% intelligibility of Silacayoapan. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 60%, 1 20%, 2 19%, 3 1%, 4 0%, 5 0%. 60% are monolingual. Speakers switch to Spanish when trying to communicate with people from Silacayoapan. About 20% (nearly all men) speak some Spanish for trade, travel, or work outside the area....

Daly Languages

Daly Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
609 words
Illustration(s):
1

...: also called Merranunggu, Emmi, Warrgat. 15 speakers remain. Formerly spoken southwest of Darwin, inland from Anson Bay, east of Manda. Young people speak Kriol. Maridan : also called Meradan. 20 speakers remain. Formerly spoken southwest of Darwin, north of Moyle River, east of Magadige. Maridjabin : also called Maretyabin, Maridyerbin, Maredyerbin. 20 speakers remain. Formerly spoken inland from Anson Bay, south of Mariyedi and Manda, southwest of Darwin. May be intelligible with Marithiel or Maringarr. Bilingualism in Kriol. Marimanindji : also...

Defoid Languages

Defoid Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
526 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Idoma and Agatu. Agatu, Idoma, and Bassa people use Igala for attending Ika Bible School. Ije: also called Holi, Ede Ije. 20,000 speakers in Benin, Zou Province. Bilingualism in Yoruba. Isekiri: also called Itsekiri, Ishekiri, Shekiri, Jekri, Chekiri, Iwere, Irhobo, Warri, Iselema-Otu, Selemo. 510,000 speakers in Nigeria, in Delta state, Warri, Bomadi, and Ethiope LGAs. Closely related to Yoruba. Kambolé: also called Southwest Ede. 20,000 speakers in Togo, east central in the town of Kambolé and a few surrounding villages. Closely related to Ifé....

Maric Languages

Maric Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
206 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Languages . A branch of the Pama-Nyungan family spoken in Queensland, Australia. Figure 1. Subgrouping of Marind Languages LANGUAGE LIST Bidyara: also called Bidjara, Bitjara, Bithara. 20 speakers remain. Formerly spoken between Tambo and Augathella, Warrego River and Langlo River. Bilingualism in English. Biri: also called Wirri. 5 speakers remain. Formerly spoken southeast of Charters Towers. Gangulu: formerly spoken around Isaac River, west of Marlborough. Said to be extinct as of 1987 . Gugu Badhun: 2 speakers remain. Formerly spoken west of...

Minahasan Languages

Minahasan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
171 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Tolour, Toulour. 80,000 speakers in Sulawesi and USA. In Sulawesi: Northeast around Tondano and to the southeastern coast of the northern peninsula, Toulour district. Dialects are Tondano, Kakas (Ka'kas), Remboken. Closest to Tombulu and Tonsea. Tonsawang: also called Tombatu. 20,000 speakers in northeastern Sulawesi around Tombatu. Bilingualism in Manado Malay. Tonsea: also called Tonsea'. 90,000 speakers in at the northeastern tip of Sulawesi. Dialects are Maumbi, Airmadidi, Likupang, Kauditan, Kalabat Atas. Tontemboan: also called Tompakewa,...

Northern Trans-New Guinea Phylum Languages

Northern Trans-New Guinea Phylum Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
894 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Kecamatan. Berik: also called Berrik, Berick, Upper Tor. 1,200 speakers in Papua, Indonesia. Bilingual level estimates for Irianese Malay are 0 10%, 1 30%, 2 25%, 3 20%, 4 10%, 5 5%. Bonerif: also called Beneraf. 4 speakers remain in Papua, Indonesia. Speakers intermarry with the Berik and use Berik as second language. A few children speak Bonerif. Bonerif not used except perhaps in family. 20% to 30% of the ethnic group speak Bonerif. Dabe: also called Mangambilis. 200 speakers in Papua, Indonesia, upper Tor River area, northern coast east of Sarmi,...

Nupoid Languages

Nupoid Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
447 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Dialects are Gupa, Abawa. Closely related to Nupe. Listed separately by Crozier and Blench. Kakanda: also called Akanda, Hyabe, Adyaktye. 20,000 speakers in Niger state, Agaie and Lapai LGAs; Kwara state, Kogi LGA, and communities along the Niger River centered on Budã. Dialects are Budon Kakanda, Gbanmi-Sokun Kakanda. Kami: 5,000 speakers in Niger state, Lapai LGA, Ebo town and eleven villages. Kupa: 20,000 speakers in Kwara state, Kogi LGA, around Abugi, fifty-two villages. Nupe-Nupe Tako: also called Nupe, Nufawa, Nupeci, Nupenchi, Nupecidji,...

Southwest Pama-Nyungan Languages

Southwest Pama-Nyungan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,539 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Southwest Pama-Nyungan Languages LANGUAGE LIST Adynyamathanha: also called Wailpi, Wailbi, Waljbi, Wipie, Ad'n'amadana, Anjimatana, Anjiwatana, Archualda, Benbakanjamata, Binbarnja, Gadjnjamada, Jandali, Kanjimata, Keydnjmarda, Mardala, Nimalda, Nuralda, Unyamootha, Umbertana. 20 speakers remain in Australia. Formerly spoken in Flinders Ranges area, South Australia. Related to Guyani, Banggarla, Nugunu, and Narungga, which may be extinct. Bilingualism in English. Antakarinya: also called Andagarinya. 50 speakers remain in Australia. Formerly spoken in the...

Dani-Kwerba Languages

Dani-Kwerba Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
705 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ages. Vigorous language use. Dani, Lower Grand Valley : also called Balim Selatan. 20,000 speakers in central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley and upper gorge. Dialects are Lower Grand Valley Hitigima (Dani-Kurima, Kurima), Upper Bele, Lower Bele, Lower Kimbin (Kibin), Upper Pyramid. Dani, Mid Grand Valley : also called Tulem, Central Grand Valley Dani, Baliem Valley Dani, Balim Tengah. 50,000 speakers in Baliem Valley. Dani, Upper Grand Valley : also called Balim Atas, Wosi. 20,000 speakers in central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley and upper gorge. Dani,...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...who return do not like Quechua speakers to use Spanish loans. Quechua, Ayacucho: also called Runasimi, Chanka. 900,000 speakers in Peru, the southwestern Ayacucho region and Lima. Dialects are Andahuaylas, Huancavelica. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 31%, 1 20%, 2 20%, 3 20%, 4 8%, 5 1%. Perhaps 300,000 are monolingual, 600,00 can speak varying degrees of Spanish. Some families are switching to Spanish. Spoken in local administration, oral and written Ayacucho Quechua used in some schools and more than one university. Parents transmit Ayacucho...

Edoid Languages

Edoid Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
649 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Epimi. 5,766 speakers in Nigeria. Ondo state, Akoko South LGA. Related to Ukue. Emai-Iuleha-Ora: also called Kunibum, Ivbiosakon. 100,000 speakers in Nigeria. Edo state, Owan LGA. Dialects are Ivhimion, Emai, Iuleha, Ora. Dialect cluster. Engenni: also called Ngene, Egene. 20,000 speakers in Nigeria. Rivers state, Ahoada LGA; Bayelsa state, Yenagoa LGA. Dialects are Ediro, Inedua, Ogua. Epie: also called Epie-Atissa. 12,000 speakers in Nigeria. Rivers state, Yenagoa LGA. Most speakers are bilingual in Ijo. Eruwa: also called Erohwa, Erakwa, Arokwa....

Tacanan Languages

Tacanan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...speakers in Bolivia and Peru. In Bolivia: 1,300 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,300 as of 2000 . Each clan has slight dialect differences; all seem inherently intelligible. Appears the most different from other Tacanan languages. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 40%, 1 20%, 2 30%, 3 10%, 4 0%, 5 0%. All ages. In Peru: 400 speakers. Ethnic population: 400 as of 2000 . Spoken along the Tambopata and Heath Rivers around Maldonado. The Tambopata dialect in Peru is somewhat different from the Bolivian dialect. Almost all in Peru are bilingual in...

Uto-Aztecan Languages

Uto-Aztecan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,500 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Aztec. 60,000 speakers in Mexico in Naupan, northern Puebla. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 20%, 1 30%, 2 30%, 3 15%, 4 5%, 5 0%. Náhuatl, Puebla Sureste : also called Southeastern Puebla Náhuatl, Tehuacán Náhuatl. 130,000 speakers in Mexico in southeastern Puebla, Tehuacán region, Chilac and San Sebastián Zinacatepec area. Approximately 60% intelligibility with Morelos Náhuatl. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 30%, 1 20%, 2 20%, 3 20%, 4 10%, 5 10%. Náhuatl, Santa María la Alta : also called Santa María Náhuatl. 2,000 speakers in Mexico...

Barbacoan Languages

Barbacoan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
286 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Figure 1. Subgrouping of Barbacoan Languages LANGUAGE LIST Andaqui: also called Andaki. Formerly spoken in Colombia in the southern highlands. Awa-Cuaiquer: also called Coaiquer, Quaiquesar, Kwaiker, Cuaiquer, Awa, Awa Pit. 21,000 speakers in Colombia and Ecuador. In Colombia: 20,000 speakers. Pacific slopes of the Andes, Nariño, from Ecuador border north, near Barbacoas. Some bilingualism in Spanish. Mainly women and children speakers are monolingual. In Ecuador: 1,000 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,600 to 3,500 as of 2000 . Extreme north, on the western...

Gorontalo-mongondic Languages

Gorontalo-mongondic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
255 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, these languages constitute a branch of Western Malayo-Polynesian. Figure 1. Subgrouping of Gorontalo-Mongondic Languages LANGUAGE LIST Bintauna: 6,000 speakers in the northeast, around Bintauna. Bolango: also called Bulanga, Bulanga-Uki, Diu. 20,000 speakers. Dialects are Bolango, Atinggola. Buol: also called Bual, Bwo'ol, Dia. 75,000 speakers in central Sulawesi, Paleleh, Bunobogu, Bokat, Momunu, Biau, Baolan subdistricts; northern coast near the border with northern Sulawesi, 68 villages. Gorontalo: also called...

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