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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Numerical Notation

Numerical Notation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,609 words
Illustration(s):
1

...dates. Because of its antiquity and ubiquity in Mesoamerica, the 260-day calendar—a permutation of sequences of 13 numbers and of 20 day-names—is the major environment for the numerals 1 to 13. The 365-day calendar—with 18 months of 20 days and a residual period of 5 days—was also common throughout Mesoamerica. Only the Maya identified a given day by both its date in the 365-day calendar as well as in the 260-day calendar. In the 20-day months, the first 19 days were enumerated from 1 to 19, and the last day was identified in one of two ways; it was named as...

Grolier, Codex

Grolier, Codex   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
679 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the fragmentary Codex Grolier has the narrowest topical focus and is the most Mexican in its iconography and painting style. Its ten extant pages of native bark paper (sheets 10 and 11 are pieces of the same page) present part of a Venus almanac, one that originally spanned 20 pages. This almanac is unique because it illustrates and gives equal weight to each of the planet's four stations, devoting a page to each, and it is the only extant manuscript to present the iconography of all four stations. In contrast, the other Venus almanacs—in the Maya Codex...

Caroline of Brandenburg-Anspach

Caroline of Brandenburg-Anspach (b. 1 Mar. 1683)   Quick reference

The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
186 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Brandenburg-Anspach , queen of Great Britain and Ireland, b. 1 Mar. 1683 , da. of Johann Friedrich , margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach, and Eleanora , da. of Johann Georg , duke of Saxe-Eisenach; m. Georg August (later George II ), 2 Sept. 1705 ; d. 20 Nov. 1737 ; bur. Westminster abbey. Caroline was blonde and blue-eyed, handsome in her youth, and remaining imposing, though she became very stout. Her tact covered much of her husband's brusqueness, and she exercised considerable influence over him, largely by deferring to his opinions, even...

Socio-Economic Profile

Socio-Economic Profile   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,605 words
Illustration(s):
1

...29.90 25.27 12.18 Hispanic 47.23 22.85 20.27 9.65  Mexican 53.37 21.69 18.36 6.57  Puerto Rican 43.69 25.52 20.74 10.04  Cuban 38.66 20.85 22.67 17.82  Other Hispanic 36.78 24.83 23.90 14.49 Asian 19.23 19.61 23.16 38.00 2000 Less than High School High School Some College College or More U.S. 19.52 28.60 27.41 24.47 Non-Hispanic White 14.50 29.96 28.58 26.96 Non-Hispanic Black 27.12 29.63 28.62 14.63 Hispanic 47.60 22.05 19.89 10.46  Mexican 54.19 20.80 17.53 7.48  Puerto Rican 36.81 25.97 24.69 12.53  Cuban 36.66 20.17 21.90 21.27  Other Hispanic 40.65...

Day-Signs

Day-Signs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,561 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and are abstract in design, in the manner of the Maya day-signs. In Maya dates, a day-sign is placed within another sign, giving the day an added outline, and often three scrolls appear beneath. Houston ( 1989 , p. 35) suggests that the origin of this cartouche is a glyph for 20. A phonetic sign la is sometimes infixed into the center scroll, presumably as a phonetic complement for k'al (“twenty”). When Maya day-signs occur outside this cartouche, they do not function as day-signs but have logographic or phonetic values, which are often apparently...

Hampton, Lionel

Hampton, Lionel (b. 20 April 1908)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
852 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Lionel ( b. 20 April 1908 ; d. 31 August 2002 ), jazz musician , philanthropist , and black Republican. Lionel Hampton's career as a musician spanned seven decades, during which he became a jazz icon. While Hampton was an excellent drummer, his mastery of the vibraphone and his popularity as a bandleader enabled him to stamp his unique signature on jazz. He presented music to the people with panache, exuberance, and showmanship. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 20 April 1908 , but moved to Chicago with his maternal grandmother, Louvenia Morgan,...

Lee, Spike

Lee, Spike (b. 20 March 1957)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
995 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Spike ( b. 20 March 1957 ), screenwriter , director , and actor . The provocative and prolific filmmaker Spike Lee has been credited with paving the way for other aspiring African American screenwriters and directors. He was born Shelton Jackson Lee in Atlanta, Georgia, to Bill Lee , a composer and bass player, and Jacquelyn Shelton Lee , an art teacher. His mother gave him the nickname “Spike” as a child. In 1959 the family moved to Brooklyn, New York, living in the neighborhoods of Crown Heights , Cobble Hill , and Fort Greene . Lee's...

Carroll, Diahann

Carroll, Diahann (17 July 1935)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,584 words
Illustration(s):
1

...not hurt and that it was certainly something that I wanted all children to see.... I think my background was very close to Julia, and I think that the segment of the population who also had middle-class parents felt a closeness to Julia, and they were happy to see her there. ( 20/20 interview with Connie Chung) However, at the time, the turmoil exhausted Carroll. After the second season, she asked to be released from her contract and returned to singing. Four years later, Carroll made up for Julia and again surprised everybody with her performance in the...

Owls

Owls   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
681 words
Illustration(s):
1

...owls. The so-called Moan bird in the Dresden Codex is explicitly named kuy (“screech owl” in Mayan) and is associated with the thirteenth heaven. As an owl, it is a bad omen and always accompanied by negative attributes. The death-bringing owl and a coral snake. Codex Laud f. 20. Drawing by Nikolai K. Grube . Grube, Nikolai , and Linda Schele . “ Kuy, the Owl of Omen and War. ” Mexicon 16 (1994), 10–17. Identifies the screech owl as the emblem of God L and an Omen of war linked to Teotihuacan. Sahagún, Bernardino de . General History of the Things of...

Seneca Falls Convention

Seneca Falls Convention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
690 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Falls Convention On 19 and 20 July 1848 the small Upstate New York textile community of Seneca Falls hosted America's first women's rights convention. Under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Mary Ann McClintock , Lucretia Coffin Mott , Martha Wright , and Jane Hunt , women and men came together to address the “social, civil and religious rights of women.” Although the Seneca Falls Convention is often viewed as the beginning of the women's rights movement in the United States, diverse people throughout the nation had previously displayed...

Abyssinian Baptist Church

Abyssinian Baptist Church   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
639 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1971 ; he had been excluded from his congressional seat in 1967 following allegations of misappropriating committee funds. He died in 1972 . Abyssinian Baptist Church . Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton speaks at the Abyssinian Baptist Church on West 138th Street in New York City, 20 January 2008. Photograph by Elise Amendola. AP Images The Reverend Samuel DeWitt Proctor , a distinguished teacher and public servant, succeeded Adam Clayton Powell Jr. A stirring orator, Proctor brought a high degree of prestige to the Abyssinian pulpit. His students included...

House, Son

House, Son (b. 21 March 1902)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
678 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., ed. Nothing but the Blues: The Music and the Musicians . New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Eleven essays compiled by an award-winning producer (Cohn), ranging from gospel to the 1960s blues revival. Dicaire, David . Blues Singers: Biographies of 50 Legendary Artists of the Early 20th Century . Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1999. Lomax, Alan . The Land Where Blues Began . New York: Pantheon Books, 1993. Written by the man who recorded House in 1941; has an excellent section on House in chapter 1 and further references in chapters 7 and 8. — Emmett P....

Natchaba, Fambaré Ouattara

Natchaba, Fambaré Ouattara (1945– )   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
664 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Eyadéma agreed to accept a national convention to remake the constitution and end single-party rule, Natchaba served the ruling party as a delegate at this event. He was rewarded for his loyalty by becoming the minister of foreign affairs for Eyadéma from 14 September 1992 to 20 March 1994 . He was elected to the Togolese parliament on 6 February 1994 and retained this position until he lost a parliamentary election in 2007 . He became one of the chief leaders of the RPT party in parliament. On 3 September 2000 , Natchaba was elected president of the...

Telleriano-Remensis, Codex

Telleriano-Remensis, Codex   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,122 words
Illustration(s):
1

...City, 1964–1969 ). A color facsimile appeared in 1995 . The Codex Telleriano-Remensis consists of three major pictorial sections derived from different types of native books. The first is a ritual calendar of the eighteen 20-day ceremonies of the solar year. Each one features a single figure, generally the deity honored during that 20-day period ( veintena ). Annotations identify the figure and initial date of the veintena and remark on the ceremony or historical events that took place during that period. The second section is another type of ritual...

Knight, Gladys

Knight, Gladys (28 May 1944)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,416 words
Illustration(s):
1

...my first song on the charts, and my first romance.” She graduated from Archer High School in 1960 and married James “Jimmy” Newman. She had two children by Newman, James in 1962 and Kenya in 1963 . In 1961 Gladys Knight and the Pips produced their first rhythm and blues Top-20 hit with a version of Johnny Otis ’s “Every Beat of My Heart.” During the latter part of the 1960s, several of their singles would reach the Top 40. Her group signed with Motown’s subsidiary, Soul, in 1965 . The group teamed up with the songwriter-producer Norman Whitfield in the...

Wilson, Nancy

Wilson, Nancy (20 February 1937)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,029 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Nancy (b. 20 February 1937 ), singer . In a career spanning more than fifty years, Nancy Wilson has produced over sixty albums and achieved international recognition for her performances. Whereas some musicians have achieved success in one musical genre, Wilson has continued to thrive into the early twenty-first century as a premier “song stylist,” successfully singing jazz, pop, and R&B. This has made Wilson one of the most talented and durable musical figures of her generation. Nancy Wilson, a highly talented song stylist in jazz, pop, and rhythm and...

Poitier, Sidney

Poitier, Sidney (b. 20 February 1927)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,193 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Sidney ( b. 20 February 1927 ), Academy Award–winning American actor, civil rights activist, and ambassador. Sidney Poitier pioneered portrayals of African American men on the movie screen during the mid-twentieth-century civil rights movement. He was the first black actor to be nominated for an Academy Award and the first black man to play a romantic lead in major Hollywood films. His on-screen work in the 1950s and 1960s and his directorial work in the 1970s and beyond inaugurated a new era of black film: an era in which filmmaking was taken out of the...

McDaniel, Hattie

McDaniel, Hattie (10 June 1895)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,744 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Extraordinary Life Of Hattie McDaniel . People Weekly , 6 August 2001, 30. Life of Oscar-Winning Actress Hattie McDaniel Recounted in American Movie Classics Original Film Hosted by Whoopi Goldberg . Jet , 20 July 2001, 20. Oscar Winner Hattie McDaniel Memorialized at Hollywood Cemetery Which Had Refused to Bury Her . Jet , 15 November 1999, 20-22. Yearwood, Gladstone Lloyd . Black Film as a Signifying Practice: Cinema, Narration, and the African American Aesthetic Tradition . Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2000. Monique M....

Education

Education   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,852 words
Illustration(s):
3

...3,216 9.0 Missouri 40 704 5.7 Virginia 64 20,692 0.3 North Carolina 217 10,967 2.0 South Carolina 80 3,584 2.2 Georgia 1 1,124 0.1 Tennessee 70 2,595 3.0 Alabama 68 847 8.0 Mississippi 0 308 0.0 Florida 66 356 18.5 Louisiana 1,219 6,165 19.8 Arkansas 11 206 5.3 Texas 20 151 13.2 source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850 (Washington, DC: Robert Armstrong, 1853). Table 2. Whites Attending Schools–1850 Free States White Children In School White Children Ages 6–20 % Whites Ages 6–20 In School Maine 185,941 212,782 87.4 New...

Cole, Johnnetta Betsch

Cole, Johnnetta Betsch (19 October 1936)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
967 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the base of the work that I do: how can people of color, poor people, and women become full, productive, and equal members of the society in which they live? During her 8 November 1988 inauguration, Cole, now known widely as “Sister President,” announced that a historic gift of $20 million had been made to the college by Bill and Camille Cosby . Cole’s scholarly research and writing have been in the areas of cultural anthropology, African American studies, and women’s studies. She is especially interested in systems of inequality based on race, gender, and...

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