You are looking at 1-20 of 1,735 entries  for:

  • Results with images only x
clear all

View:

Overview

20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914 Leslie Howsam 1 A book culture 2 Economics 3 Production and publishing 4 Circulation and preservation 5 Subjects and genres 6 Reading 1 A book culture Print was the principal medium of written communication in Britain during the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. In that era of rapid population increase and concentrated industrial, urban, and imperial expansion, MS circulation was minimal and broadcasting lay in the future. Along with *periodicals and *newspapers , books and *pamphlets constituted the...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...use of roman script. Dedicated to translating the Bible into indigenous languages, Christian missionaries were especially active in employing this script. Its use in printing gave roman script an overpowering advantage, strongly supported in the 19 th and 20 th centuries by colonial governments. In the 20 th century, roman script became the accepted medium for the public sphere throughout the entire region. In the Philippines, Indic syllabaries closely connected to the Indic scripts in Indonesia had been in use before the 16 th century, but under the...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

..., whose beautifully crafted bindings, produced to his own designs, inspired a revival of interest in handcrafted bookbinding. A tradition of fine bookbinding flourished in many countries during the 20 th century; in England, A 20 th -century binding by Edgar *Mansfield , an influential figure in the development of the *Designer Bookbinder movement in the later 20 th century: *blind-tooling on yellow *goatskin . The upper cover of H. E. Bates’s Through the Woods (London, 1936). © The British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. (C.128.f.10) the...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a phenomenon that had important commercial and cultural implications. Fundamental structural changes paved the way for the future direction of the publishing industry and became integral to 20 th -century developments in the horizontal integration of the industry, by which smaller firms merged to form larger publishing houses that commanded a greater market share. 9 The 20 th century The growth in book production in the 50 years before World War I was higher than the growth in the reading public—a ‘catching-up’ after the setbacks of the mid- 1860s . The...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Denmark’s *Kyster as pioneers. Early 20 th -century Scandinavian *typography was strongly influenced by Modernism (Hugo Lagerström, Steen Eiler Rasmussen). In the 1940s and 1950s , British axial typography prevailed in fiction (C. Volmer Nordlunde) and Swiss asymmetry in *textbooks (Viggo Naae, *Forsberg ). From the 1960s onwards, both lines were typographically improved ( *Frederiksen , Carl Fredrik Hultenheim, *Kristensen ), and increased *legibility became a major desideratum (Bror Zachrisson). Late 20 th -century typographers excelled in...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...in such monasteries as Salzburg (then belonging to Bavaria) and *Kremsmünster , both 8 th -century foundations, and later at Admont, St Florian, and elsewhere. In 1500 , the population of the area corresponding to present-day Austria was about 1.5 million. Vienna had c .20,000 inhabitants, Schwaz 15,000, Salzburg 8,000, Graz 7,000, Steyr 6,000, and Innsbruck 5,000. At that date, Vienna’s university (founded 1365 ), was a centre of humanist scholarship. The first printer in the city was Stephan Koblinger , who arrived from Vicenza in 1482 and...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...there were an estimated 45,000 men peddling books to 20 million readers throughout Germany and Austria. The 19 th century also saw the foundation of the earliest book clubs, offering subscribers new books at advantageous prices. The earliest, apparently, was the Verein zur Verbreitung guter katholischer Bücher, founded in 1829 . The Litterarischer Verein in Stuttgart, founded in 1839 , specialized in scholarly editions of older literary works, many of which have still not been superseded. Later, 20 th -century book clubs included the *Büchergilde...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...) ran a printing office for the Polish Socialist Party in London. 7 The 20 th century When Poland regained independence in 1918 , printing, publishing, and cultural life were reinvigorated, but many obstacles remained for the development of reading and book culture. Literacy levels were low ( c .33 per cent in 1921 ) and book prices were high. There were approximately 500 publishers in Poland in 1935 ; overall production in terms of titles had nearly trebled from c .3,000 (early 20 th century) to c .8,700 ( 1938 ). Gebethner & Wolff remained the giants...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and printed using the roman alphabet. More than 1,500 languages are spoken in Africa, and many sub-Saharan countries possess an extraordinary linguistic richness (Nigeria’s 100 million people speak more than 250 languages; the same number occur among Cameroon’s population of 20 million). Despite the difficulty of conveying the complexities of some tonal languages in script, most African languages are now written and printed using the roman alphabet. A few languages—notably Egyptian, Berber, and Nubian in North Africa, and Vai in 19 th -century...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...the press. In the early 20 th century, the casting process and the machining of the plates to fit the cylinders was made faster and more automatic. With the addition of extra printing units, newspapers with more pages could be produced at speeds reaching 80,000–100,000 copies an hour. To speed production still further, multiple moulds could be made and used to cast plates intended for additional presses in the same location or a distant one. Rotary presses fitted with curved stereotype plates were used until the second half of the 20 th century for printing...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...word (Ezek. 3:1), so it is as a book that St John the Divine imagines the enunciation of the apocalypse (Rev. 5:1). When the dead come before God at the end of things, the books are opened, ‘and whosoever was not found in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire’ (Rev. 20:15). It is not difficult to see how the symbolic meaning of the book might translate also into the mystical value of the book as artefact. The idea within the Kabbalah of the secret significance of the very letters in which the Torah is transcribed has been traced back to the 1 st ...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of the literary market. This broadening of the marketplace coincided with a trend across the region toward the professionalization of publishing, which became a separate business from printing and bookselling. 4 The development of the publishing industries in the 20 th century By the early 20 th century, the growing Latin American book market was still dominated by French publishing houses—Garnier, Bouret, Ollendorff, Armand Colin, Hachette, Michaud, and Editorial Franco-Iberoamericana—plus some German (Herder), English ( *Nelson ) and American (Appleton)...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...ethics with modern life and politics. This divergence remains an acute feature of modern Islam, reinforced by outside pressures and new sources of authority in what continues to be above all a book-based system of belief. 10 Muslim book culture in the 20 th and 21 st centuries By the beginning of the 20 th century, printing had largely displaced the writing of MSS as the normal method of transmitting texts in most of the Muslim world. Only in a few remote areas, such as Yemen, did the scribal profession continue to flourish. In the main centres of...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...trade that encompassed sometimes complex author–publisher relations, mechanized production processes, and nationwide networks of distribution and credit. Modern business methods and the ascendancy of *advertising reshaped publishing and bookselling in the first half of the 20 th century, even as publishers sought to preserve the notion of books and literature as a realm apart from the marketplace. Since World War II, American books have more and more become the products of a global economy, where publishing conglomerates and, more recently, the *World...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...History of the Book in Italy Neil Harris 1 Introduction 2 The introduction of printing 3 Venice 4 Aldus 5 An interlude with factors and causes 6 The 16 th century and the supremacy of Venice 7 The 17 th to the 19 th centuries: decline, revival, fall, renewal 8 The 20 th and 21 st centuries: two wars, Fascism, and after 1 Introduction Histories of the book in Italy, especially those assessing the impact of printing, often follow a predictable and all too conventional narrative pattern. They open with the German printers—who began publishing the...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...4 The 20 th century The future course of books and publishing in 20 th -century China was set in 1897 with the founding of *Shangwu Yinshuguan (Commercial Press) in Shanghai. After the abolition of the imperial examinations in 1905 , traditionally educated scholars such as Zhang Yuanji ( 1867–1959 ) encouraged the publishing of new Western-style textbooks, from which the Commercial Press first gained its reputation. The *Zhonghua Shuju , founded in Shanghai in 1912 , would become its leading competitor. The first decade of the 20 th century...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...the alphabetic principle spread—westwards (via Greek) to the Romans and thence to modern Europe, eastwards (via Aramaic, in all probability) to India and thence to Southeast Asia. By the 20 th century, as a consequence of colonial empires, most of the world’s peoples except the Chinese and Japanese were writing in alphabetic scripts. These employ on average between 20 and 40 basic signs; the smallest, Rotokas, used in Papua New Guinea, has 12 letters, the largest, Khmer, used in Cambodia, has 74 letters. The western alphabetic link between the Greeks and...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...At the beginning of the 21 st century, Australia is among the most urbanized countries in the world, and one of the most sparsely populated. The three major cities of the eastern seaboard—Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane—account for nearly half the country’s population of 20 million. Similarly, the book trade is dominated by just a few of the more than 200 active publishers. In 2001 , six multinationals— *Penguin , *Random House , *HarperCollins , Pan *Macmillan , Hodder Headline, and *Simon & Schuster —held more than 60 per cent of the general...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...victim was provincial printing. By the most conservative estimates, at the end of Louis XIV ’s reign Paris produced 80 per cent of the national output. Another unintended consequence of French absolutism was the prosperity of foreign printers of French books, who now contributed 20 per cent of the total, a proportion that peaked at 35 per cent in the middle of the 18 th century. The first decades of the 17 th century had seen the triumph of the religious revival launched by the Counter-Reformation, St Francis de Sales ’s Introduction à la vie dévote ,...

10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...(refuse from sugar-making) added c .1884 . Pulping methods for wood can sometimes be assigned by means of stain tests: soda wood came first; mechanical groundwood next, from 1851 ; sulphite from 1872 ; kraft from 1884 , with various semi-mechanical methods starting in the early 20 th century. The exact date for the introduction of any fibre is subject to revision, as early trials certainly antedate the years given, which are when their use was commercialized. Sizing chemistry is probably of next greatest importance. Early papers used gelatine or starch,...

View: