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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Ashdod

Ashdod   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,957 words
Illustration(s):
2

... b.c.e . Ashdod is mentioned in the prophetic texts in relation to destruction prophecies of various kingdoms, usually as one of the late Iron-Age Philistine cities, together with Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron ( Jer 25:20 ; Amos 1:8 , 3:9 ; Zeph 2:4 ; Zech 9:6 ). One of these references mentions the “remnants of Ashdod” ( Jer 25:20 ), possibly indicating the weaker position of Ashdod during the seventh century b.c.e . According to Herodotus, after the fall of Assyria, Ashdod was besieged by Psamtik I of Egypt for no less than 29 years. The ostracon...

Mount Ebal

Mount Ebal   Reference library

Adam Zertal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,269 words
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1

...secondary ramp, which was connected to the main one, led to it. Two stone-paved courtyards constructed in front of the main building, measuring approximately 26.2 by 19.7 ft (8 by 6 m) each, contained several stone boxes. In all, some 100 or more little stone boxes, each ca. 20 by 20 inches (50 by 50 cm), were found scattered in the courtyards and around the altar. They were built in layers that indicate several stages of use. Different pots, above all jugs, were found inside most of them. The pots had been broken on the spot, enabling their archaeological...

Tel Kedesh

Tel Kedesh   Reference library

Andrea M. Berlin and Sharon C. Herbert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,536 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of King Hiram of Tyre, a contemporary of Kings David and Solomon. (1) In 1 Kings 9:10–14 Solomon gives to Hiram 20 cities in the Galilee, but in the parallel passage of 2 Chronicles 8:2 Solomon rebuilds the cities that Huram (as the Chronicler calls him) had given to him. (2) In 1 Kings 5:9–11 Hiram sends lumber and workers for the temple, in return for which Solomon pays a yearly tribute of 20,000 cors of wheat and 20,000 cors of oil, an arrangement reflecting the Tyrian monarch’s greater standing; in 2 Chronicles 2:3–16 , payment is...

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Mayer I. Gruber

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,502 words
Illustration(s):
1

...six women, four of whom are named. Those named are Miriam ( Exod 15:20 ), Deborah ( Judg 4—5 ), Huldah ( 2 Kgs 22:14 , 2 Chr 34:22 ), and Noadiah ( Neh 6:14 ); the unnamed include the wife of Isaiah ( Isa 8:3 ) and a female prophet identified in Micah 6—7 . The medium at Endor ( 1 Sam 28 ), though not orthodox for the writer of Samuel, should be counted among this group as well. Prominent among the sages are two women, whose stories are found in 2 Samuel 14 and 2 Samuel 20:16–22 . Their very anonymity points to the possibility that female sages...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Jürgen Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,329 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Masada’s main character as residential refuge, reflecting the dramatic events of 40 b.c.e. The second phase. Substantial additions to phase-I structures, probably connected to a shift in functional focus, characterize the second building phase on Masada, carried out between 30 and 20 b.c.e. Just reaffirmed as king of Judea by Octavian following Cleopatra and Mark Antony’s demise, Herod was able to take full advantage of the political security and economic prosperity that the Pax Romana had brought to the empire. Herod demonstrated his key position within the...

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Ant. 15.423). But the project was so huge that much work dragged on until 28 c.e. ( John 2:20 ), and it was not before 64 c.e. that the Roman governor Albinus declared the Temple finished and ordered construction to stop, creating a major social crisis (Josephus, Ant. 20.219). Herod Agrippa II (r. 48–ca. 93 c.e. ) had to repair and embellish the streets of Jerusalem to keep 18,000 workers active who were previously employed at the Temple (Josephus, Ant. 20.220–221). Numismatic finds and the almost perfect state of many pavers on the south–north road...

Dan

Dan   Reference library

David Ilan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,469 words
Illustration(s):
2

...“Cenotaph” tomb XI Middle Bronze II 18th century b.c.e. Mud-brick gate house with three intact arches, earthen rampart, monochrome painted crème ware pottery XII Middle Bronze I 20th–18th centuries b.c.e. Simple dwellings, wheel-made pottery including Levantine painted ware, infant and adult burials and tombs under houses, first bronze objects XIII Intermediate Bronze 23d–20th centuries b.c.e. Sparse settlement remains, pottery XIV Early Bronze III 27th–23rd centuries b.c.e. Massive additions to rampart in stone and earth, Khirbet Kerak pottery XV Early...

Herodium

Herodium   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,362 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Judaea: A Mediterranean State in the Classical World . TSAJ 122. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2008. Spijkerman, A. Herodium III: Catalogo delle monete . Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collectio Maior 20. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1972. Testa, E. Herodium IV: I graffiti e gli ostraka . Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collectio Maior 20. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1972. Jürgen K....

Capernaum

Capernaum   Reference library

Stefano De Luca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...where the crowd assembles and he meets with, heals, teaches, and debates them and privately instructs his disciples ( Mark 1:29–39 , 2:1–12 , 3:20–35 , 4:10–11 , 7:17–23 [cf. Matt 15:1–20 ], 9:33–37 ; Matt 8:14–17 , 9:1–18 , 12:46–50 , 13:36–43 , 18:1–5 ; Luke 4:38–43 , 5:17–26 , 8:9–10 , 8:19–21 , 9:46–48 ). Even if one recognizes an underdeveloped ecclesiological dimension in Mark, Mark 3:20–35 documents elements typical of a new core of believers, a new family of Jesus in the house of Simon and Andrew—set in opposition to those...

Gath

Gath   Reference library

Aren Maeir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,993 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a few identities were suggested), based on both textual analyses and the archaeological remains, it is clear that Gath of the Philistines should be placed at Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi (Tel Zafit), a site in the northwestern Shephelah, on the southern bank of the Elah Valley, ca. 12.5 miles (20 km) north of modern Qiryat Gath and 5.6 miles (9 km) south of Tel Miqne-Ekron. Textual References. Predating its mention in the biblical text, Gath is known from the el-Amarna correspondence, with several letters relating to the site ( gimti ), mentioning two kings, Šuwardata and...

Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...hewn limestone incense altars were found lying on their sides on the middle stair of stratum X, below the floor of stratum IX of the main hall. The altars differ in size: the base of the smaller is 8.7 by 7.9 inches (22 by 20 cm) and it is 15.7 inches (40 cm) high, while the larger is 12.2 by 11.4 inches (31 by 29 cm) at base and 20 inches (51 cm) high. Both altars had a top part separated from the base by a groove. A shallow depression was cut in the top surface, with remnants of organic material. Unlike many similar altars, those at Arad had no horns. The...

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Annette Weissenrieder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,094 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a positive result. With reference to literary testimony, one expects to find his cult place in the storeroom (Dio Chrysostom, 1 Regn. 92; Menander Pseudo-Herakles, Poetae Comici Graece 6.2.410). Two speeches, delivered by Isaeus ( Orat. 8.16–17) and Antiphon ( Orat. 3.18–20), describe a tribute of the domus by way of a sacrifice and a (ritual) meal. Yet while Isaeus restricts the sacrifice to the family in the narrower sense, Antiphon reports on two friends’ cult sacrifice that is committed in one of their houses. So here one must create a broader...

Shiloh

Shiloh   Reference library

Hayah Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,582 words
Illustration(s):
1

...long, in Areas F, G, and H. The wall, built of fieldstones laid directly on bedrock, was between 9.8 and 18 ft (3 and 5.5 m) thick and in Area D was preserved to a height of 21.9 ft (6.7 m). The glacis, which abutted the base of the wall, was 82 ft (25 m) wide at its lower part and 20.7 ft (6.3 m) wide next to the wall. At the center of the glacis, a wall was built to further stabilize it. Large boulders were laid at the edge of the glacis as an additional support measure. In Area F, a series of rooms whose walls were preserved to a height of 7.5 ft (2.3 m) was...

Cooking

Cooking   Reference library

Cynthia Shafer-Elliott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,370 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Iron Ages and were heavily influenced by the arrival of the Philistines. In the Hebrew Bible, words for cooking pots include רוּרפָּ ( Num 11:8 , Judg 6:19 , 1 Sam 2:14 ), ריסִ ( Exod 16:3 ; 2 Kgs 4:38–41 ; Jer 1:13 ; Ezek 11:3 , 7 , 11 ; Mic 3:3 ; Zech 14:20–21 ), תחַלַּקַ ( S1 Sam 2:14 ; Mic 3:3 ), and דוּדּ ( S1 Sam 2:14 ). Simply put, cooking vessels can be categorized into three basic forms: the Bronze-Age or “Canaanite” pot or bowl, the Philistine jug, and the hybrid pot. The Bronze-Age “Canaanite” pot. The cooking pots...

Literacy, Iron Age

Literacy, Iron Age   Reference library

Alice Mandell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,213 words
Illustration(s):
1

...; for record keeping [ Num 33:2 , Josh 18:8–9 , Judg 8:14 ], including lists and genealogies [ Gen 5:1 ] and royal annals [ 1 Kgs 11:41 , 15:23 ; 2 Kgs 20:20 ]), as well as references to royal scribes ( 2 Sam 8:17 , 20:25 ; 1 Kgs 4:3 ; 2 Kgs 12:10 ; Isa 36:3 ), underscore their growing importance. Moreover, references to writing in Deuteronomy ( 4:13 , 6:9 , 27:3 , 28:58 , 29:20–21 , 30:10 , 31:19 , 31:24 ), in Josiah’s reforms ( 2 Kgs 22–23 ), in prophetic works ( Jer 25:13 , 29:1 , 30:2 , 36:4 , 36:8 ; Isa 8:1 , 29:11–12 , ...

Caesarea

Caesarea   Reference library

Joseph Patrich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,858 words
Illustration(s):
1

... c.e. ) gave supremacy over the city to its non-Jewish opponents. The leadership of the community was by a council of 12, headed by John, the tax collector ( telones ), seemingly of harbor taxes (Josephus, J.W. 2.287, 292). In 66 c.e. , under the procurator Florus, more than 20,000 Jews were massacred; others were deported as slaves or fled to the countryside. The ensuing Jewish Revolt brought a decisive blow to the Jewish population in the city. In the second century c.e. the Jewish community started to revive, but it was not the majority or the...

Rehob

Rehob   Reference library

Amihai Mazar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,191 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Beth-Shean Valleys and eastward toward Transjordan, through Pella. The apiary. An exceptional discovery related to the ancient economy and social structure at the site is the apiary discovered in Area C, stratum V. The apiary is located in an area of about 65.6 by 65.6 ft (20 by 20 m). It includes three rows of cylindrical hives laid horizontally, with evidence of at least three tiers of hives in each row. In each row the number of preserved hives differs, yet altogether more than 30 hives were preserved; and the total number of hives in the apiary is...

Jerusalem, Bronze and Iron Age

Jerusalem, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Philip Andrew Johnston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,914 words
Illustration(s):
4

...orientation. A more conservative interpretation has been put forth by both Amihai Mazar and Avi Faust, which recognizes the existence of an early monumental structure in this area based on Wall 20, while allowing that some of the other walls in E. Mazar’s reconstruction may date to a later period. The bonding between the top of the Stepped Stone Structure and Wall 20 of the Large Stone Structure indicates that they were constructed simultaneously, implementing a single architectural plan for a monumental structure at the top of the northern end of the...

Religion, Judaism

Religion, Judaism   Reference library

Katharina Galor, Yonatan Adler, and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
20,228 words
Illustration(s):
3

...namely in 23/22 b.c.e. In Antiquities (15.380) he began in the eighteenth year, namely in 19/18 b.c.e. Completion of the entire Temple Mount complex, however, took much longer. According to John 2:20 , the construction lasted 46 years, which would mean the project was finished in 27/28 c.e. , long after Herod's death in 4 b.c.e. In Antiquities (20.219) the construction lasted more than 80 years, which would have been shortly before the First Jewish Revolt broke out in 66 c.e. Construction methods and materials. According to Josephus, there were...

Tell Dothan

Tell Dothan   Reference library

Daniel M. Master

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,680 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Excavation at Dothan.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 131 (1953): 16–20. Free, Joseph P. “The Fifth Season at Dothan.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 152 (1958): 10–18. Free, Joseph P. “The Fourth Season at Dothan.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 143 (1956): 11–17. Free, Joseph P. “The Second Season at Dothan.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 135 (1954): 14–20. Free, Joseph P. “The Seventh Season at Dothan.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental...

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