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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,644 words
Illustration(s):
1

...G-20, or a similar inclusive group, was likely to emerge as the premier forum of international economic dialogue, policy coordination, and decision making even beyond the crisis. A formal declaration to that effect was made at the third G-20 summit in Pittsburgh, USA, in 2009. G-20 leaders will now meet each year at the summit level. The bigger EMEs have now become too systemically important to be excluded from any meaningful or effective international economic consultative process to manage globalization. India is one of the bigger economies within the G-20....

Netherlands, 19th–20th century

Netherlands, 19th–20th century   Reference library

Auke van der Woud

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,036 words
Illustration(s):
1

...19th–20th century Dutch architecture in the 19th century was as internationally oriented as in the 20th, but Dutch architect s and their work would participate actively in international architectural debates only after World War I. The 19th century brought roughly the same fundamental social, ideological, and technical changes to the Netherlands as to other parts of Europe. The architects, their patrons, the education, and their work changed more or less in the same way. At the start of the 19th century, until c .1835 , French architect ure...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914 Leslie Howsam 1 A book culture 2 Economics 3 Production and publishing 4 Circulation and preservation 5 Subjects and genres 6 Reading 1 A book culture Print was the principal medium of written communication in Britain during the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. In that era of rapid population increase and concentrated industrial, urban, and imperial expansion, MS circulation was minimal and broadcasting lay in the future. Along with *periodicals and *newspapers , books and *pamphlets constituted the...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...use of roman script. Dedicated to translating the Bible into indigenous languages, Christian missionaries were especially active in employing this script. Its use in printing gave roman script an overpowering advantage, strongly supported in the 19 th and 20 th centuries by colonial governments. In the 20 th century, roman script became the accepted medium for the public sphere throughout the entire region. In the Philippines, Indic syllabaries closely connected to the Indic scripts in Indonesia had been in use before the 16 th century, but under the...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

..., whose beautifully crafted bindings, produced to his own designs, inspired a revival of interest in handcrafted bookbinding. A tradition of fine bookbinding flourished in many countries during the 20 th century; in England, A 20 th -century binding by Edgar *Mansfield , an influential figure in the development of the *Designer Bookbinder movement in the later 20 th century: *blind-tooling on yellow *goatskin . The upper cover of H. E. Bates’s Through the Woods (London, 1936). © The British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. (C.128.f.10) the...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a phenomenon that had important commercial and cultural implications. Fundamental structural changes paved the way for the future direction of the publishing industry and became integral to 20 th -century developments in the horizontal integration of the industry, by which smaller firms merged to form larger publishing houses that commanded a greater market share. 9 The 20 th century The growth in book production in the 50 years before World War I was higher than the growth in the reading public—a ‘catching-up’ after the setbacks of the mid- 1860s . The...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Denmark’s *Kyster as pioneers. Early 20 th -century Scandinavian *typography was strongly influenced by Modernism (Hugo Lagerström, Steen Eiler Rasmussen). In the 1940s and 1950s , British axial typography prevailed in fiction (C. Volmer Nordlunde) and Swiss asymmetry in *textbooks (Viggo Naae, *Forsberg ). From the 1960s onwards, both lines were typographically improved ( *Frederiksen , Carl Fredrik Hultenheim, *Kristensen ), and increased *legibility became a major desideratum (Bror Zachrisson). Late 20 th -century typographers excelled in...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...in such monasteries as Salzburg (then belonging to Bavaria) and *Kremsmünster , both 8 th -century foundations, and later at Admont, St Florian, and elsewhere. In 1500 , the population of the area corresponding to present-day Austria was about 1.5 million. Vienna had c .20,000 inhabitants, Schwaz 15,000, Salzburg 8,000, Graz 7,000, Steyr 6,000, and Innsbruck 5,000. At that date, Vienna’s university (founded 1365 ), was a centre of humanist scholarship. The first printer in the city was Stephan Koblinger , who arrived from Vicenza in 1482 and...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...there were an estimated 45,000 men peddling books to 20 million readers throughout Germany and Austria. The 19 th century also saw the foundation of the earliest book clubs, offering subscribers new books at advantageous prices. The earliest, apparently, was the Verein zur Verbreitung guter katholischer Bücher, founded in 1829 . The Litterarischer Verein in Stuttgart, founded in 1839 , specialized in scholarly editions of older literary works, many of which have still not been superseded. Later, 20 th -century book clubs included the *Büchergilde...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...) ran a printing office for the Polish Socialist Party in London. 7 The 20 th century When Poland regained independence in 1918 , printing, publishing, and cultural life were reinvigorated, but many obstacles remained for the development of reading and book culture. Literacy levels were low ( c .33 per cent in 1921 ) and book prices were high. There were approximately 500 publishers in Poland in 1935 ; overall production in terms of titles had nearly trebled from c .3,000 (early 20 th century) to c .8,700 ( 1938 ). Gebethner & Wolff remained the giants...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and printed using the roman alphabet. More than 1,500 languages are spoken in Africa, and many sub-Saharan countries possess an extraordinary linguistic richness (Nigeria’s 100 million people speak more than 250 languages; the same number occur among Cameroon’s population of 20 million). Despite the difficulty of conveying the complexities of some tonal languages in script, most African languages are now written and printed using the roman alphabet. A few languages—notably Egyptian, Berber, and Nubian in North Africa, and Vai in 19 th -century...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...the press. In the early 20 th century, the casting process and the machining of the plates to fit the cylinders was made faster and more automatic. With the addition of extra printing units, newspapers with more pages could be produced at speeds reaching 80,000–100,000 copies an hour. To speed production still further, multiple moulds could be made and used to cast plates intended for additional presses in the same location or a distant one. Rotary presses fitted with curved stereotype plates were used until the second half of the 20 th century for printing...

The Taming of the Shrew

The Taming of the Shrew   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,052 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...his wedding to Bianca and Hortensio’s to the Widow; after the three brides leave the chamber, each husband bets 20 crowns that his wife will return most obediently when summoned. Bianca and the Widow refuse to come, but Katherine comes immediately, and at Petruccio’s bidding fetches the other two wives, throws off her hat, and preaches a long homily on wifely obedience, thereby winning him the wager. A delighted Baptista adds another 20,000 crowns to Petruccio’s winnings. (In The Taming of a Shrew , Sly, now asleep, is put back into his own clothes and...

Troilus and Cressida

Troilus and Cressida   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,065 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of different accounts: George Chapman’s translation Seven Books of the Iliads of Homer (from which Shakespeare drew the character of Thersites, though not his actions); William Caxton ’s Recuyell of the Histories of Troy ( 1475 ) and John Lydgate ’s Troy Book ( c. 1412–20 ), both derived from a common Italian original (these supplied material for most of the play’s battle scenes and the debate in Troy, among much else); and Ovid ’s Metamorphoses (from which Shakespeare derived his opposition between the intelligent Ulysses and the ‘blockish’...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...word (Ezek. 3:1), so it is as a book that St John the Divine imagines the enunciation of the apocalypse (Rev. 5:1). When the dead come before God at the end of things, the books are opened, ‘and whosoever was not found in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire’ (Rev. 20:15). It is not difficult to see how the symbolic meaning of the book might translate also into the mystical value of the book as artefact. The idea within the Kabbalah of the secret significance of the very letters in which the Torah is transcribed has been traced back to the 1 st ...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of the literary market. This broadening of the marketplace coincided with a trend across the region toward the professionalization of publishing, which became a separate business from printing and bookselling. 4 The development of the publishing industries in the 20 th century By the early 20 th century, the growing Latin American book market was still dominated by French publishing houses—Garnier, Bouret, Ollendorff, Armand Colin, Hachette, Michaud, and Editorial Franco-Iberoamericana—plus some German (Herder), English ( *Nelson ) and American (Appleton)...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...ethics with modern life and politics. This divergence remains an acute feature of modern Islam, reinforced by outside pressures and new sources of authority in what continues to be above all a book-based system of belief. 10 Muslim book culture in the 20 th and 21 st centuries By the beginning of the 20 th century, printing had largely displaced the writing of MSS as the normal method of transmitting texts in most of the Muslim world. Only in a few remote areas, such as Yemen, did the scribal profession continue to flourish. In the main centres of...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...trade that encompassed sometimes complex author–publisher relations, mechanized production processes, and nationwide networks of distribution and credit. Modern business methods and the ascendancy of *advertising reshaped publishing and bookselling in the first half of the 20 th century, even as publishers sought to preserve the notion of books and literature as a realm apart from the marketplace. Since World War II, American books have more and more become the products of a global economy, where publishing conglomerates and, more recently, the *World...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...subject, Cleopatra , published in 1607 , and in Barnabe Barnes’s play The Devil’s Charter , acted by the King’s Men in February 1607 , so in all probability Antony and Cleopatra enjoyed its first performances late in 1606 . It was entered in the Stationers’ Register on 20 May 1608 . Text: Despite this entry, the play was not printed until the publication of the First Folio in 1623 , which provides the only authoritative text. It seems to have been printed from a good transcript of Shakespeare’s own foul papers , though not a Promptbook : although...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...violating poetic justice. During the 19th century and the first part of the 20th much criticism of the play was similarly dedicated to showing how and why it was inferior to the earlier tragedies, with A. C. Bradley commenting on the critical distance Shakespeare maintains between audience and characters by ironic humour and Harley Granville-Barker praising the play’s supreme, focused craftsmanship at the expense of its vitality. Frank Harris pioneered one recurrent strain in 20th-century criticism in The Women in Shakespeare ( 1911 ) when he claimed...

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