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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
5,014 words
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... [ This entry includes two subentries, an overview and discussions of terrorism in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia and South Asia and Southeast Asia .] Overview Defining terrorism can be controversial and elusive. As the cliché goes, one side's terrorist is the other side's freedom fighter. The resort to violence by the state that causes collateral civilian casualties may be perceived as terrorism by the victims, no less than deliberate violence conducted by individuals and groups against civilians. In March 2005 , political leaders and...

9/11

9/11   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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655 words
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...American schools. In the early morning, three of the hijacked planes were used as blunt-force missiles loaded with jet fuel. Two of these struck the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan, a symbol of American financial might and long a target of international terrorism. The third struck the side of the Pentagon building in Washington, D.C., which houses the Department of Defense. The fourth jet crashed into the rural Pennsylvania countryside—brought down, it seems, during a fight between the hijackers and passengers who had been in...

Qaeda, al-

Qaeda, al-   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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1,178 words
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...as the defender of values that are just and original. Despite the losses that Al-Qaeda suffered as a result of the war on terrorism led by the United States and its allies after 11 September, Al-Qaeda has managed to regroup and has updated its political warfare strategy. It seeks to change the policies of countries allied with the United States by eroding popular support for assisting the United States in fighting the war on terrorism and slowly stripping allies away from the United States. The attacks on German tourists in Tunisia in 2002 , the bombings of...

Cayman Islands

Cayman Islands   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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340 words
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...funds. Despite autonomy, the islands were exposed to substantial pressure from the British government to tighten their control over the financial sector. This intensified after September 11 , amidst concerns that money‐laundering through the Cayman Islands encouraged global terrorism. It has since agreed to share tax information with various European countries to help tackle tax evasion. Its performance remains under review by the European Union . The islands are susceptible to hurricanes, and in 2004 , Hurricane Ivan caused significant damage to most houses...

Indo-Pakistan Conflict

Indo-Pakistan Conflict   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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1,223 words
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...was in line with the U.S.–led war on terrorism, which had made Pakistan a front-line state. Nonetheless, the Indian prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee stated that the two countries were moving closer to war. On 12 January 2002 , however, Musharraf gave a sixty-two-minute televised address to the nation and the world. He announced that severe action would be taken against anyone engaging in terrorism, even on behalf of the freedom of Kashmir, and he promised to end the use of Pakistan as a base for terrorism in Kashmir. The speech was a highly...

Iraq War

Iraq War   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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1,771 words
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...II. If, some argued, Iraq were to become a thriving, multiethnic, democratic, and secular state, it would undermine terrorism and encourage the kind of regional stability long sought by the energy-dependent United States. Where once the United States had feared the “domino effect” of a single Communist victory in Southeast Asia, it now hoped for the democratic equivalent in the Middle East, so that fundamentalist regimes that sponsored terrorism would be swamped by a “rising tide of liberty.” “The requirements of freedom,” as Bush put it, were universally...

Pakistan

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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...country which has suffered from the inability of central government to impose itself on its different regions and tribes. Pakistan's instability was heightened by its development into a frontline state next to Afghanistan, first in the Cold War and then in the War on Terrorism . Origins The country came under British control in the first half of the nineteenth century, as part of British India. Its name is derived from the Urdu word pak (‘ritually pure’), and means ‘Land of the Pure’. It is also an acronym for its most important component peoples: ...

Maldives, Republic of

Maldives, Republic of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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578 words
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...conservatives. In February 2012 , in what amounted to a coup, he was forced to resign. New elections occurred in 2013 in which Nasheed lost to Abdulla Yameen, Gayoom’s half-brother. Any form of opposition was discouraged. In 2015 Nasheed was jailed for thirteen years on terrorism charges (he was allowed to travel to Britain in 2016 for medical treatment, and was granted political asylum there). Yameen’s Vice-President, Ahmed Adeeb , was arrested over an alleged assassination plot, and jailed for 15 years. The penal code was also amended, incorporating...

Group of Eight

Group of Eight   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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1,036 words
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...commerce. Issues are no longer restricted to economics and finance and now include anything of mutual or global concern, such as health, law enforcement, labor, economic and social development, human rights and justice, financial crime, energy, environment, foreign affairs, terrorism, nuclear safety and security, nonproliferation of weapons, and arms control. The finance ministers meet four times a year to review developments in their economies and to originate common approaches on international economic and financial policy issues. The central bank...

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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1,288 words
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...exploited by—and helped support— Osama Bin Laden and his terrorist activities. Although the Saudi government was at first sceptical vis-à-vis the US reaction against the Taliban following the September 11 attacks, it gave cautious assistance to the US in its War against Terrorism. In particular, it hoped to exert a moderating influence in the Middle East, by attempting to promote peace between Israel and Palestine from 2001 . It did not, however, allow the USA to use its facilities in Saudi Arabia to attack Iraq in the second Gulf War . Abdullah ...

Guerrillas and Guerrilla Movements

Guerrillas and Guerrilla Movements   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,671 words
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...their practice considered as terrorism. Marighella, Carlos . The Terrorist Classic: Manual of the Urban Guerrilla . New Translation by Gene Hanrahan. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Documentary Publications, 1985. A text widely published in Latin America, frequently clandestinely, and closely followed by rural guerrillas. O'Neill, Bard E. Insurgency and Terrorism: Inside Modern Revolutionary Warfare . Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 1990. How guerrillas need to be counterattacked, by a former U.S. Air Force officer and now expert in terrorism. Edmundo Murray South Asia...

Lockerbie Bombing

Lockerbie Bombing   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
850 words
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...Council dated 15 August 2003 . On 22 August 2003 , Libya transferred the $2.7 billion to an escrow account at the Bank for International Settlements in Basel. The Security Council finally lifted the sanctions against Libya on 12 September 2003 . [ See also Libya and Terrorism . ] Bibliography Crawford, John . The Lockerbie Incident: A Detective's Tale . Oxford: Trafford, 2002. Gerson, Allan , and Jerry Adler . The Price of Terror: Lessons of Lockerbie for a World on the Brink . London: HarperCollins, 2001. Wallis, Rodney . Lockerbie: The Story...

Tajikistan

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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739 words
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...were created, and the President's term of office was extended to seven years. Rahmon was re-elected in 1999 , amidst allegations of electoral fraud and the continued curtailment of the political opposition. In 2001 economic and social stability was boosted when the War on Terrorism broke out in neighbouring Afghanistan, as it brought substantial capital inflows from the USA and other donors concerned to stabilize the region. In 2003 Rahmon called a referendum to increase his allowable period of office to 2020 and won a further election in 2006 , an...

Chad

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
920 words
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...in the capital which is only 50 kilometres from the Nigerian border. By the end of 2015, there were 350,000 Sudanese refugees, along with 90,000 from the Central African Republic and 13,000 from Nigeria, in Chad. Chad has cooperated with western countries on counter-terrorism, and there was surprise when, in September 2017, the Trump administration added it to the list of countries whose citizens are banned from travelling to the USA. Parliamentary elections have been postponed since 2015 and are now expected at some point in 2018....

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,961 words
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...into the Tamil United Liberation Front ( TULF ). Pressured by the militant groups, the party's Vaddukodai Declaration of the same year expressed support for a separate state in the north and east, although it remained within the democratic structure. In 1979 a Prevention of Terrorism Act was passed as conflict grew between militants and the military. In July 1983 a terrorist ambush that killed thirteen soldiers in Jaffna was the spark that set off a horrific wave of anti-Tamil violence in the south with the complicity of government members. Many Tamils...

Anarchism

Anarchism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,936 words
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...by the deed,” acts of revolt such as violent strikes, riots, assassinations, and bombings intended to ignite popular uprisings. This phase degenerated in France at the beginning of the 1890s into terrorism and the cult of dynamite, although care was normally taken to ensure that the victims would be class enemies, not members of the laboring masses. Anarchist terrorism was snuffed out by vigorous use of les lois scélérates , but there were to be many assassinations—and even more numerous unsuccessful attentats (attempts) on the lives—of monarchs and statesmen...

United States of America

United States of America ((USA, or US))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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3,591 words
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...of the federal government, a rationale pursued by earlier Republican administrations. By contrast, the September 11 attacks fundamentally redefined much of US foreign and domestic policy. By declaring War on Terrorism , Bush created a foreign and domestic political agenda aimed at punishment and prevention. ‘Preventing’ acts of terrorism before they had been committed proved contentious, as evidenced by the Patriot Act ( 2001 ), which dramatically curtailed civil rights. Under its provisions, over 1,000 individuals, mostly Muslims, were imprisoned...

Piracy

Piracy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,421 words
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...pirate ship in custody at the Philippine navy headquarters in Manila, February 1996. Photograph by Pat Roque. AP Images partly due to stronger international efforts to enforce the “good order of the sea” and to quell piracy, also in the wider framework of the global war on terrorism. However, the influence of local situations on the proliferation of contemporary piracy can easily lead to a reversal of this trend. [ See also Shipping ; Slave Trade, subentry Atlantic Slave Trade ; and Trade, International, subentry Overview . ] Bibliography Bernath ,...

Dictatorship

Dictatorship   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,765 words
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...authority and seek to eliminate internal opposition, often defined as “enemies” of the people, the state, or the future itself. Extreme versions of such ideological dictatorships—for example, Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and Cambodia under Pol Pot—have led to prolonged state terrorism, including torture and detention centers, mass murder, genocide, and extensive violations of other human rights. Antecedents to Modern Dictatorships. Exercises of centralized, authoritarian political power in ancient times, including among the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Inca,...

Interreligious Dialogue

Interreligious Dialogue   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,130 words
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... Professor Edward Said of Columbia University foremost among them, insisted upon exploring the specific material and institutional roots of sectarian conflicts. Advocates of the “clash of civilizations” notion have, from the late 1990s, answered this critique by pointing to terrorism undertaken by Islamist activists, suggesting that the attacks of 11 September 2001 exposed, in unprecedented fashion, “civilizational differences” as the principal source of conflict in the modern world. The debate sparked by Huntington's article has given particular impetus,...

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