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Overview

terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
5,014 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [ This entry includes two subentries, an overview and discussions of terrorism in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia and South Asia and Southeast Asia .] Overview Defining terrorism can be controversial and elusive. As the cliché goes, one side's terrorist is the other side's freedom fighter. The resort to violence by the state that causes collateral civilian casualties may be perceived as terrorism by the victims, no less than deliberate violence conducted by individuals and groups against civilians. In March 2005 , political leaders and...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,497 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Terrorism is a deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern era, and just as Jews and Christians engaging in terrorism, they...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,348 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for Counter‐Terrorism (12 February 2003): 1–19. Blee, Kathleen M. Inside Organized Racism: Women in the Hate Movement . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. Blee, Kathleen M. Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. Blee, Kathleen M. “ Women and Organized Racial Terrorism in the United States. ” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 28, no. 5 (September–October 2005): 421–433. Cunningham, Karla J. “Countering Female Terrorism.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30, no. 2 (February...

Terrorism and Foreign Policy

Terrorism and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Amanda Skuldt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,414 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Terrorism and Counter Terrorism: A Communication Model. Terrorism and Political Violence 14 (2), 79. Crelinsten, R.D. , and Schmid, A. (1992) Western Response to Terrorism: A Twenty-Five Year Balance Sheet. Terrorism and Political Violence 4 (4), 307–340. Crenshaw, M. (1983) Terrorism, Legitimacy and Power: The Consequences of Political Violence . Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. Crenshaw, M. (1989a) Terrorism and International Cooperation . New York: Institute for East-West Security Studies. Crenshaw, M. (1989b) On Terrorism and...

Malveaux, Julianne

Malveaux, Julianne (22 September 1953)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
928 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Paradox of Loyalty: An African American Response to the War on Terrorism , a collection of essays written by a talented group of professionals who shared their insights on war, terrorism, and the catastrophe of 11 September 2001 . While the attacks on 11 September were horrific and unimaginable, in the book Malveaux criticizes the federal government for funding homeland security and the war on terrorism but neglecting to fund areas such as education and health care. She states, “A war on terrorism abroad is also a war on poor people at home. We’re allowing...

Singapore

Singapore   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
951 words
Illustration(s):
1

...British and Australian diplomatic buildings in Singapore. During 2002 the Singapore Internal Security Department ( ISD ) arrested more than thirty persons under the Internal Security Act ( ISA ) for involvement in terrorism-related activities. In January 2003 , a white paper, The Jemaah Islamiyah Arrests and the Threat of Terrorism , was released and debated in parliament. In addition to presenting details of the JI network, and profiles of the detainees, the report also sums up the different measures being taken to tighten security and strengthen...

9/11

9/11   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
655 words
Illustration(s):
1

...American schools. In the early morning, three of the hijacked planes were used as blunt-force missiles loaded with jet fuel. Two of these struck the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan, a symbol of American financial might and long a target of international terrorism. The third struck the side of the Pentagon building in Washington, D.C., which houses the Department of Defense. The fourth jet crashed into the rural Pennsylvania countryside—brought down, it seems, during a fight between the hijackers and passengers who had been in...

Qaeda, al-

Qaeda, al-   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,178 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as the defender of values that are just and original. Despite the losses that Al-Qaeda suffered as a result of the war on terrorism led by the United States and its allies after 11 September, Al-Qaeda has managed to regroup and has updated its political warfare strategy. It seeks to change the policies of countries allied with the United States by eroding popular support for assisting the United States in fighting the war on terrorism and slowly stripping allies away from the United States. The attacks on German tourists in Tunisia in 2002 , the bombings of...

Maldives

Maldives   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
357 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to a period of political instability. In 2013 Nasheed was narrowly defeated in the presidential election by Abdulla Yameen, half-brother of the former President Gayoom. He cracked down on opposition, increased the Islamization of the country, and had Nasheed jailed for 'terrorism'. He withdrew the Maldives from the Commonwealth in 2016 . A constitutional crisis erupted in February 2018 when the military occupied the capital and secured the release of Nasheed; Yameen responded by declaring a state of...

Cayman Islands

Cayman Islands   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
340 words
Illustration(s):
1

...funds. Despite autonomy, the islands were exposed to substantial pressure from the British government to tighten their control over the financial sector. This intensified after September 11 , amidst concerns that money‐laundering through the Cayman Islands encouraged global terrorism. It has since agreed to share tax information with various European countries to help tackle tax evasion. Its performance remains under review by the European Union . The islands are susceptible to hurricanes, and in 2004 , Hurricane Ivan caused significant damage to most houses...

Afghanistan, Australian Deployment to

Afghanistan, Australian Deployment to   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
822 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington DC the Australian Prime Minister, John Howard , invoked the mutual-defence clause of the ANZUS treaty. By doing so Howard committed Australia to participate in an American-led international coalition against terrorism. Al‐Qaeda's base of operations was Afghanistan, where its Saudi-born leader, Osama Bin Laden, enjoyed the protection of the country's Taliban government. The Taliban were an Islamic fundamentalist sect who came to power in the fighting that followed the collapse of the communist...

Mauritius

Mauritius   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
490 words
Illustration(s):
1

...role of President in 1992 . General elections were held in 1995 following the collapse of the government and the opposition alliance, led by Navin Ramgoolam, was elected. Jugnauth returned to power in 2000 . President Uteem resigned in 2002 rather than approve a new anti-terrorism law. The law was eventually approved by one of a series of short-term presidents that lasted until Jugnauth assumed the post in 2003 , being replaced as Prime Minister by Paul Raymond Bérenger. However, Bérenger was defeated in the 2005 general election by Ramgoolam, who was...

Indo-Pakistan Conflict

Indo-Pakistan Conflict   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,223 words
Illustration(s):
1

...was in line with the U.S.–led war on terrorism, which had made Pakistan a front-line state. Nonetheless, the Indian prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee stated that the two countries were moving closer to war. On 12 January 2002 , however, Musharraf gave a sixty-two-minute televised address to the nation and the world. He announced that severe action would be taken against anyone engaging in terrorism, even on behalf of the freedom of Kashmir, and he promised to end the use of Pakistan as a base for terrorism in Kashmir. The speech was a highly...

September 11

September 11   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,232 words
Illustration(s):
1

...U.S. commanders augmented the American military presence in and around the Persian Gulf. Additional troops were deployed to Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar from September 2001 to June 2002 . Shortly thereafter, combat teams arrived in Yemen, Jordan, and Djibouti. Such anti-terrorism forces were subsequently overshadowed by the massive build-up that presaged the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 . This build-up coincided with the transfer of 15,000 troops that had previously been stationed in Germany and Italy to new bases in Bulgaria, Hungary, and...

Iraq War

Iraq War   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,771 words
Illustration(s):
1

...II. If, some argued, Iraq were to become a thriving, multiethnic, democratic, and secular state, it would undermine terrorism and encourage the kind of regional stability long sought by the energy-dependent United States. Where once the United States had feared the “domino effect” of a single Communist victory in Southeast Asia, it now hoped for the democratic equivalent in the Middle East, so that fundamentalist regimes that sponsored terrorism would be swamped by a “rising tide of liberty.” “The requirements of freedom,” as Bush put it, were universally...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,032 words
Illustration(s):
1

...country which has suffered from the inability of central government to impose itself on its different regions and tribes. Pakistan's instability was heightened by its development into a frontline state next to Afghanistan, first in the Cold War and then in the War on Terrorism . Origins The country came under British control in the first half of the nineteenth century, as part of British India. Its name is derived from the Urdu word pak (‘ritually pure’), and means ‘Land of the Pure’. It is also an acronym for its most important component peoples: ...

Colombia

Colombia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
678 words
Illustration(s):
4

...in Colombia's history killed more than 1,000 people and left thousands homeless. In 2002 Pastrana declared war on FARC, sending the army into FARC's ‘safe haven’. Alvaro Uribe defeated Pastrana in 2002 presidential elections. Uribe promised even tougher action against terrorism. At the end of his second term in the role Juan Manuel Santos was elected. Conflict with FARC and other groups escalated from 2002 ; a cross-border raid on FARC bases in 2008 sparked a break in diplomatic ties with Venezuela. In recent years popular support for the rebels...

Guatemala

Guatemala   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
536 words
Illustration(s):
4

...coffee plantations. After World War 2, Guatemala embarked on further nationalization of plantations. In 1960 , the mainly Quiché Guatemalan Revolutionary National Unity Movement (URNG) began a guerrilla war that claimed more than 200,000 lives. During the 1960s and 1970s, terrorism and political assassinations beset Guatemala. In 1976 , an earthquake devastated Guatemala City, killing more than 22,000 people. Politics Guatemala has a long-standing claim over Belize, but this was reduced in 1983 to the southern fifth of the country. In 1985 , Guatemala...

Algeria

Algeria   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
669 words
Illustration(s):
1

...party rapidly gained popular support. In 1992 the FIS seemed poised to win a general election but Bendjedid dissolved the government and resigned. A transitional military regime took over and cancelled the election. FIS supporters continued to wage a campaign of violence and terrorism; an estimated 76,000 people were killed in the years 1992–97 . A new constitution was adopted in 1996 , and in 1999 Abdelaziz Bouteflika was elected president. Disaffection by Islamists and Berber separatists has continued. Bouteflika was re‐elected in 2004 and announced...

Maldives, Republic of

Maldives, Republic of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
578 words
Illustration(s):
1

...conservatives. In February 2012 , in what amounted to a coup, he was forced to resign. New elections occurred in 2013 in which Nasheed lost to Abdulla Yameen, Gayoom’s half-brother. Any form of opposition was discouraged. In 2015 Nasheed was jailed for thirteen years on terrorism charges (he was allowed to travel to Britain in 2016 for medical treatment, and was granted political asylum there). Yameen’s Vice-President, Ahmed Adeeb , was arrested over an alleged assassination plot, and jailed for 15 years. The penal code was also amended, incorporating...

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