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Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Congo, Democratic Republic of the   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,258 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Wemba, and Abeti Masiniki, and bands such as O.K. Jazz, and Docteur Nico et l’Orchestre African Fiesta. Mobutu also acted as a patron to some of the Zairean musicians and sometimes invited them to play at his palaces. By the early 1980s Mobutu’s government was notorious as a kleptocracy in which public funds were used for private gain, especially for the private gain of the president himself, who diverted vast sums of revenue into his personal bank accounts. Meanwhile, the Zairean economy and infrastructure deteriorated. Mobutu managed to maintain his...

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption   Reference library

Frank G. Madsen

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,475 words
Illustration(s):
1

...who hold senior executive, judicial, and legislative positions.” The G8 emphasize the enhanced due diligence requirements with regard to “politically exposed persons.” The term corruption comprises a series of overlapping phenomena; the most tragic of these is kleptocracy . “Kleptocracy is corruption of high-level public officials, who use their positions systematically to line their pockets directly or indirectly with funds from the public purse” ( Reuter and Truman, 2004 :149). Although kleptocrats have emerged on all continents from Haiti and the...

Energy, Security, and Foreign Policy

Energy, Security, and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Özgür Özdamar

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,231 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and respect” for the producer countries. They argue that US policy makers avoid criticizing producer governments for fear of threatening their relations with them and therefore put the US’s energy security at risk. The authors claim that the US has been too silent on Africa’s kleptocracy, Russia’s trespasses on the rule of law, and repressive, undemocratic governments in the Middle East. Their suggestion is to criticize the producing countries in the international arena and penalize them if necessary. This aspect of foreign policy most concerns the Middle East....

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