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Anders Jonas Angström

Anders Jonas Angström  

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(1814–74) Swedish astronomer and physicistwho became professor of physics at the University of Uppsala from 1858 until his death. He worked mainly with emission spectra, demonstrating the presence of ...
coupling

coupling  

1 An interaction between two different parts of a system or between two or more systems. Examples of coupling in the spectra of atoms and nuclei are Russell-Saunders coupling, j-j coupling, and ...
Hund's rules

Hund's rules  

Empirical rules for interpreting atomic spectra used to determine the lowest energy level for a configuration of two equivalent electrons (i.e. electrons with the same n and l quantum numbers) in a ...
light

light  

A type of radiant energy with a wavelength of 0.39 to 0.77 micrometres within the electromagnetic spectrum, which is visible to humans.
multiplicity

multiplicity  

A quantity used in atomic spectra to describe the energy levels of many-electron atoms characterized by Russell-Saunders coupling given by 2S+1, where S is the total electron spin quantum number. The ...
Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr  

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(1885–1962)Danish physicist and Nobel prizewinner, remembered philosophically as the founder of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory. This antirealist interpretation of the quantum world ...
Paschen–Back effect

Paschen–Back effect  

An effect on atomic line spectra that occurs when the atoms are placed in a strong magnetic field. Spectral lines that give the anomalous Zeeman effect when the atoms are placed in a weaker magnetic ...
selection rules

selection rules  

Rules that determine which transitions between different energy levels are possible in a system, such as an elementary particle, nucleus, atom, molecule, or crystal, described by quantum mechanics. ...
spectrometer

spectrometer  

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A spectrograph in which the output spectrum is scanned by a photoelectric photometer to produce a record of how the intensity of a spectrum varies with wavelength. A modern example is the radial ...
spectroscope

spectroscope  

An instrument that produces a spectrum for visual observation. Spectroscopes are now used mainly for educational and recreational purposes; research instruments employ CCD detectors to record the ...
spectroscopy

spectroscopy  

The study of methods of producing and analysing spectra using spectroscopes and other instruments. Spectroscopy is employed in a wide range of biological research areas, such as biochemistry and ...
Stark effect

Stark effect  

The splitting of lines in the spectra of atoms due to the presence of a strong electric field. It is named after the German physicist Johannes Stark (1874–1957), who discovered it in 1913. Like the ...
visible spectrum

visible spectrum  

The portion of the overall electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to humans. It is generally taken to run from c.400 nm in the violet to 700 nm in the red, although there is considerable variation ...

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