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association

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avoidance

avoidance  

Behaviour that tends to protect an animal by reducing its exposure to hazard. Avoidance behaviour may be learned (e.g. when an animal does not enter an area in which a predator has been encountered, ...
classical conditioning

classical conditioning  

One of the two major forms of conditioning (1), being the process of learning (1) through which an initially neutral stimulus (1), such as the ticking of a metronome, comes to elicit a particular ...
conditioning

conditioning  

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A process by which animals learn about a relation between two events. In classical ( or Pavlovian) conditioning, repeated presentations of a neutral stimulus (e.g. the sound of a bell or buzzer) are ...
instrumental conditioning

instrumental conditioning  

Conditioning in which the response achieves some end, such as obtaining a tangible reward or escaping punishment. It is often used as a synonym for operant conditioning, but some psychologists make a ...
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov  

(1849–1936)Russian physiologist, who became professor of physiology in St Petersburg in 1886. While working on the physiology of digestion he discovered that the mere sight of food stimulates the ...
learning

learning  

The acquisition of information or patterns of behaviour other than by genetic inheritance, or the modification of genetically acquired information or behaviour as a result of experience. See also ...
stimulus relevance

stimulus relevance  

A principle that asserts that the strength of an association between a stimulus and some consequences depends partly upon the nature of the consequences. Thus a rat (Rattus norvegicus) readily ...
stimulus–response (S–R) and stimulus–stimulus (S–S) theories

stimulus–response (S–R) and stimulus–stimulus (S–S) theories  

Theories of learning that claim that what is learned is a connection between stimulus and response (the S–R type of theory), or a connection between two stimuli (the S–S type of theory). The latter ...

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