Overview

# observation

## You are looking at 1-20 of 84 entries

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clear all   View: ## absolute error

In psychophysics, the difference between the judged value of a stimulus and its true value, ignoring the direction of the difference. Compare relative error. [Alluding to the mathematical sense of ... ## Anderson–Darling test

A general test, published in 1952, that compares the fit of the observed cumulative distribution function with that expected. It was derived by Anderson and David A. Darling as a modification of the ... ## ANOVA

The attribution of variation in a variable to variations in one or more explanatory variables. The term was introduced by Sir Ronald Fisher in 1918.A measure of the total variability in a set of data ... ## Arfwedson distribution

A distribution, presented in 1951 by the Swede, Gerhard Arfwedson, concerned with the case where each observation takes one of k equally likely values. Let M be the random variable denoting the ... ## association

The joint occurrence of two genetically determined characteristics in a population at a frequency that is greater than expected according to the product of their independent frequencies. ## balanced design

An experimental design in which the same number of observations is taken for each experimental condition. ## Bernoulli distribution

The discrete probability distribution whose probability mass function is given by Pr(X=0)=1−p and Pr(X=1)=p. It is the binomial distribution B(1, p). ## biplot

A diagram similar to a scatter diagram that attempts to represent observations having several coordinates on a diagram having (usually) just two coordinates. It was introduced by Gabriel in 1971. ## BLUE

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(best linear unbiased estimator)An estimator that is unbiased, is formed from a linear combination of the observations, and has the smallest variance of all such estimators. ## bootstrap

A computer-intensive resampling method for estimating the properties of a distribution while making minimal assumptions. In this respect it resembles the jackknife. The idea is simple. Suppose we ... ## Box–Cox transformation

A transformation to normality suggested by Box and Sir David Cox in 1964. They proposed a family of transformations that might be used to convert a general set of n observations into a set of n ... ## Box–Ljung test

A test of whether a proposed ARMA model describes a time series. Suppose that the model has p parameters and the time series has n observations. Let xj and x̂j be, respectively, the jth observed and ... ## Box–Muller transformation

A procedure, suggested by Box and Muller in 1958, for the simulation of observations from a normal distribution. If u1 and u2 are two independent observations from a continuous uniform distribution ... ## Box–Pierce test

A test to determine whether a time series consists simply of random values (white noise). The test statistic is Qm, given by , where rl is the sample autocorrelation at lag l, m is the maximum lag of ... ## Brownian motion

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The random motion of microscopic objects caused by intermolecular collisions, first described by the Scottish microscopist Robert Brown (1773–1858). A simple form of stochastic process. ## central limit theorem

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In statistics, the theorem stating of a series of data sets drawn from any probability distribution, that the distribution of the means of those data sets will follow a normal distribution. ## circular uniform distribution

The uniform distribution for directional and cyclic data. The probability density function f is constant for directions (in radians). For a data set θ1, θ2,…, θn, a test of circular uniformity ... ## class frequency

The number of observations between successive class boundaries. ## confidence interval

In statistics, a range of values based on the observed data which are likely to contain the true unknown value for a specified proportion of the time (confidence level) usually expressed as a ... ## cophenetic correlation

The correlation between the distances at which a pair of observations are joined in a dendrogram and the dissimilarity (or similarity) values for that pair. It is a measure of how successful cluster ...   View: