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absolute error

absolute error  

In psychophysics, the difference between the judged value of a stimulus and its true value, ignoring the direction of the difference. Compare relative error. [Alluding to the mathematical sense of ...
Anderson–Darling test

Anderson–Darling test  

A general test, published in 1952, that compares the fit of the observed cumulative distribution function with that expected. It was derived by Anderson and David A. Darling as a modification of the ...
ANOVA

ANOVA  

The attribution of variation in a variable to variations in one or more explanatory variables. The term was introduced by Sir Ronald Fisher in 1918.A measure of the total variability in a set of data ...
Arfwedson distribution

Arfwedson distribution  

A distribution, presented in 1951 by the Swede, Gerhard Arfwedson, concerned with the case where each observation takes one of k equally likely values. Let M be the random variable denoting the ...
association

association  

The joint occurrence of two genetically determined characteristics in a population at a frequency that is greater than expected according to the product of their independent frequencies.
balanced design

balanced design  

An experimental design in which the same number of observations is taken for each experimental condition.
Bernoulli distribution

Bernoulli distribution  

The discrete probability distribution whose probability mass function is given by Pr(X=0)=1−p and Pr(X=1)=p. It is the binomial distribution B(1, p).
biplot

biplot  

A diagram similar to a scatter diagram that attempts to represent observations having several coordinates on a diagram having (usually) just two coordinates. It was introduced by Gabriel in 1971.
BLUE

BLUE  

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(best linear unbiased estimator)An estimator that is unbiased, is formed from a linear combination of the observations, and has the smallest variance of all such estimators.
bootstrap

bootstrap  

A computer-intensive resampling method for estimating the properties of a distribution while making minimal assumptions. In this respect it resembles the jackknife. The idea is simple. Suppose we ...
Box–Cox transformation

Box–Cox transformation  

A transformation to normality suggested by Box and Sir David Cox in 1964. They proposed a family of transformations that might be used to convert a general set of n observations into a set of n ...
Box–Ljung test

Box–Ljung test  

A test of whether a proposed ARMA model describes a time series. Suppose that the model has p parameters and the time series has n observations. Let xj and x̂j be, respectively, the jth observed and ...
Box–Muller transformation

Box–Muller transformation  

A procedure, suggested by Box and Muller in 1958, for the simulation of observations from a normal distribution. If u1 and u2 are two independent observations from a continuous uniform distribution ...
Box–Pierce test

Box–Pierce test  

A test to determine whether a time series consists simply of random values (white noise). The test statistic is Qm, given by , where rl is the sample autocorrelation at lag l, m is the maximum lag of ...
Brownian motion

Brownian motion  

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The random motion of microscopic objects caused by intermolecular collisions, first described by the Scottish microscopist Robert Brown (1773–1858). A simple form of stochastic process.
central limit theorem

central limit theorem  

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In statistics, the theorem stating of a series of data sets drawn from any probability distribution, that the distribution of the means of those data sets will follow a normal distribution.
circular uniform distribution

circular uniform distribution  

The uniform distribution for directional and cyclic data. The probability density function f is constant for directions (in radians). For a data set θ1, θ2,…, θn, a test of circular uniformity ...
class frequency

class frequency  

The number of observations between successive class boundaries.
confidence interval

confidence interval  

In statistics, a range of values based on the observed data which are likely to contain the true unknown value for a specified proportion of the time (confidence level) usually expressed as a ...
cophenetic correlation

cophenetic correlation  

The correlation between the distances at which a pair of observations are joined in a dendrogram and the dissimilarity (or similarity) values for that pair. It is a measure of how successful cluster ...

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