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Albania

Albania  

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One of the poorest of the former communist states, Albania is now moving towards the European UnionThough Albania is a coastal country, not much of its territory is at sea level. Mountains make up ...
Amalfi

Amalfi  

A small Italian city in Campania, clinging to the rocky slopes of its peninsula dominating the bay of Salerno, Amalfi is mentioned as a bishopric in a letter of Pope ...
Arabic christian literature

Arabic christian literature  

Each province of the Byzantine Empire conquered by the Muslims at the end of the 7th c. kept (as today) a more or less numerous Christian community, with its own ...
Azaz, Battle near

Azaz, Battle near  

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The successors of the Byzantine emperor Basil II (r. 976–1025) continued his “forward policy.” Romanos III Argyros (r. 1028–1034), lacking military experience, supposed that victories would ...
Basil I

Basil I  

Emperor (867–86) and founder of the Macedonian dynasty; born Thrace or Macedonia 830 or 835 (E.W. Brooks, BZ 20 [1911] 486–91) or on 25 May 836 (Adontz, Etudes 67), died Constantinople 29 Aug. ...
Basil II

Basil II  

(958–1025),Byzantine emperor from 976 to 1025. Basil II’s reign, the longest of any Byzantine emperor, witnessed a number of episodes and events of enduring importance. The formal conversion in ...
Battle of Adrianople

Battle of Adrianople  

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(1050)The Pechenegs, Turkic-speaking nomads dominating the Black Sea steppes in the tenth century, were expert mounted archers. Under pressure from nomads from further east, they raided the Byzantine ...
Battle of Anchialos

Battle of Anchialos  

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(708)The western Black Sea fortress of Anchialos (present-day Pomorie, Bulgaria) played an important role in the relations between the Bulgarian khanate and the Byzantine Empire. Although the ...
Battle of Anchialos

Battle of Anchialos  

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(917)At this battle the Bulgarian ruler Symeon inflicted a crushing defeat on a Byzantine army on 20 August 917. Although Byzantium and Bulgaria had formally been at peace for ...
Battle of Arcadiopolis

Battle of Arcadiopolis  

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(1194)The reign of the Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos (r. 1185–1195) was plagued by unrest in the Balkans, further complicated by the passage of German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa ...
Battle of Bathys Ryax

Battle of Bathys Ryax  

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Part of the final Byzantine offensive against the Paulicians in eastern Anatolia, the battle of Bathys Ryax was fought in 878 to confront and bring to battle the rebel leader ...
Battle of Calavryta

Battle of Calavryta  

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In 1079, Alexios I Komnenos, the domestikos (commander) of the scholai (army) of Emperor Nikephoros III Botaneiates (r. 1078–1081), defeated the proedros (a high-ranking court official) Nikephoros ...
Battle of Cannae

Battle of Cannae  

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On 4 May 1041, at Cannae on the Ofanto in northern Apulia, the forces of the Byzantine catepan (governor) of Italy, Michael Dokeianos, were defeated for the second time by ...
Battle of Carthage

Battle of Carthage  

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The Vandal kingdom of Africa was a former Roman province, conquered by the Vandals in 429. When the Byzantine ally Hilderic was arrested by his cousin Gelimer, Justinian seized the ...
Battle of Casilinum

Battle of Casilinum  

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In a desperate attempt to strike the Byzantines, the last Ostrogoth king, Teias, asked help from the Frankish king Theudebald. An army of about thirty thousand Franks and Alemanni crossed ...
Battle of Črnomen

Battle of Črnomen  

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When the troops of the Ottoman Turks started crossing the Dardanelles in the fourteenth century, they came as mercenaries of the Christian rulers of the Balkans, employed both in international ...
Battle of Dristra

Battle of Dristra  

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In 1087 the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos was soundly defeated by the Patzinaks at Dristra (also known as Dorostolon; modern-day Silistra) on the Danube. The Patzinaks had moved into ...
Battle of Lalakaon

Battle of Lalakaon  

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The battle of Lalakaon was fought in 863 between imperial and caliphal forces at a location near the river Lalakaon (probably modern Şehirmeydanı Çayı) in the border region between the ...
Battle of Mantzikert

Battle of Mantzikert  

In 1071 the Byzantine emperor Romanos IV Diogenes was defeated and captured by the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan near the town of Mantzikert (also spelled Manzikert or Manazkert). One of ...
Battle of Nineveh

Battle of Nineveh  

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The decisive battle in Herakleios’s four-year expeditionary campaign against the Persians was described in the emperor’s victory dispatches to Constantinople, and details were incorporated into the ...

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