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Angevins of Hungary

Angevins of Hungary  

The Angevins of Hungary were descended from the Angevins of Naples. In 1269 Charles I of Anjou concluded a double marriage treaty with the Árpáds (Charles II marrying Mary of ...
Angevins of Naples

Angevins of Naples  

The Angevins of Naples, princes of French royal blood, were two successive families from Anjou, who ruled the kingdom of Naples in the late Middle Ages. It officially kept the ...
aurum coronarium

aurum coronarium  

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Gold crowns were offered to rulers and conquerors in the ancient near east and in the Hellenistic world. Similar offerings were made from the early 2nd cent. bc to Roman generals and rapidly came to ...
Boleslas II the Bold

Boleslas II the Bold  

(1041/42–1081)Boleslas the Bold or the Generous, in Polish Bolesław Śmiały or Szczodry, Polish prince and from 1076 king of Poland, was the son of the Polish prince Casimir the ...
Burgos

Burgos  

Located on the banks of the Arlanzón river (Castile), the city began as a military outpost in the 880s. Strategically placed, its castle kept a watch for Muslim raids. By ...
Cambridge University

Cambridge University  

Like many medieval universities, Cambridge dates its existence from no formal act of Foundation and from no certain date. It is usually thought to take its origins from a settlement ...
Casimir

Casimir  

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Religion
(1458–84),prince of Poland. Born at Cracow he was the third son of Casimir IV, king of Poland. At the age of thirteen he was sent by his father to the Hungarian border with a large army, as the ...
Casimir III

Casimir III  

(1310–70)King of Poland (1333–70). He consolidated the achievements of his predecessor, Władyslaw I, reorganizing the country's administration, codifying the law, and acquiring territory through ...
Castile

Castile  

A region of central Spain, on the central plateau of the Iberian peninsula, formerly an independent Spanish kingdom. The marriage of Isabella of Castile to Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 linked these ...
Catholic Kings

Catholic Kings  

Isabella, queen of Castile from 1474 to 1504, and her husband Ferdinand, king of Aragon from 1479 to 1516, each enjoyed a long reign that allowed them to pacify and ...
Celestine III

Celestine III  

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Religion
(c.1106–98), Pope from 1191. He defended Abelard at the Council of Sens (1140) and later urged Thomas Becket to adopt a less intransigent attitude. Elected Pope in his 85th year, his reign was marked ...
Champagne

Champagne  

Province of France. During the MA, the influential counts of Champagne were virtually independent of their nominal suzerain, the king of France, until the conquest of Champagne by Philip III ...
Charles I of Anjou

Charles I of Anjou  

(1226–85)King of Naples and Sicily (1266–85), son of Louis VIII of France. He acquired Provence by marriage in 1246. Pope Urban IV was under severe threat from the Hohenstaufens and gave him the ...
Charles VII

Charles VII  

(1403–61)King of France (1422–61). During his youth France was badly ruled by his father Charles the Mad and much territory was lost. Internal quarrels and war with England dominated his reign. At ...
Church and Synagogue

Church and Synagogue  

On either side of the crucifixion, medieval image-makers loved to set, to the right a woman with crown and Nimbus, brandishing the standard of victory and collecting Christ's blood in ...
Cid, the

Cid, the  

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Literature
(c. 1030–99),the favourite hero of Spain in whose story history and myth are difficult to disentangle. Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, el Cid Campeador, of a noble Castilian family, rose to fame by his ...
Cilicia

Cilicia  

A Roman province, in SE Asia Minor. Tarsus, birthplace of Paul (Acts 22: 3) was one of its towns. Paul twice passed through the area (Acts 15: 40–41 and 18: 23).
Cnut

Cnut  

(d. 1035),king of England (1016–35). Cnut, the younger son of the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard, campaigned in England by the side of his father, 1013–14. Sweyn forced King *Æthelred into exile and ...
Congregation of Valladolid

Congregation of Valladolid  

Responding to the vows of his father, in September 1390 King John I of Castile founded, in the former alcázar of Valladolid, the monastery of San Benito el Real, which ...
Cornēlius Scīpiō Aemiliānus Africānus (Numantīnus), Publius

Cornēlius Scīpiō Aemiliānus Africānus (Numantīnus), Publius  

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B. 185/4 bc as second son of Aemilius Paullus (2), adopted as a child by Cornelius Scipio, son of Cornelius Scipio Africanus. In 168 he fought under Paullus at Pydna. Back in Rome, he met Polybius, ...

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