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Agriculture Adjustment Administration.

Agriculture Adjustment Administration.  

In 1933, American agriculture neared collapse as farm bankruptcies and foreclosures multiplied and agricultural prices fell below the cost of production. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ...
Agriculture and Agricultural Labor

Agriculture and Agricultural Labor  

The history of African Americans in the United States is intimately intertwined with the history of American agriculture. From the colonial era to the early nineteenth century, the labor of ...
Alice Walker

Alice Walker  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1944– )Black US novelist and poet whose writing explores racial and sexual politics as they affect African-American women.Born into a family of sharecroppers in Eatonton, Georgia, Alice Walker ...
Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson  

(1808–75)US politician; 17th President of the USA (1865–69). As the only southern senator to support the Union in the American Civil War he was appointed military governor of Tennessee. Having been ...
Black Family

Black Family  

The television adaptation of Alex Haley's Roots (1976), which traced the history of a black family beginning with its African progenitor, Kunta Kinte, aired to wide public acclaim in the ...
cotton

cotton  

As a trade crop or fabric; Cottonopolis was a nickname for the city of Manchester, in NW England, once a centre of the British cotton trade, and King Cotton was cotton as the dominant commercial crop ...
demographics

demographics  

Statistics that describe the characteristics of a population, such as age, sex, race, family size, income, and location of residence.
Economic Life

Economic Life  

Work has always characterized African American life in the Americas. From the first arrivals in the 1610s blacks came or were brought to the New World to labor. During the ...
Fannie Lou Hamer

Fannie Lou Hamer  

(b. 6 October 1917; d. 14 March 1977), civil rights activist.“I’m sick and tired of being sick and tired.” The famous and radical words of Fannie Lou Hamer expressed ...
Farmers and Land Ownership

Farmers and Land Ownership  

African American farmers have always struggled to acquire and retain land. In the almost 150 years since the Emancipation Proclamation, the United States has been ill-equipped to handle the evolution ...
freedmen

freedmen  

 Emancipated slaves were more prominent in Roman society than in Greek city‐states or Hellenistic kingdoms (see slavery). Lat. lībertus/a designates the ex‐slave in relation to former owner ...
Freedmen's Bureau

Freedmen's Bureau  

To assist the adjustment of newly freed slaves in the post–Civil War South, Congress in March 1865 established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands under the leadership of ...
land tenure

land tenure  

Land could be held in a number of ways. Theoretically all land was owned ultimately by the crown, but most of it has been ‘sold’ to private individuals or public ...
Migratory Agricultural Workers.

Migratory Agricultural Workers.  

Following the Civil War, a migratory labor system of mobile, low-paid workers emerged in the United States to meet the seasonal demands of expanding capitalist agriculture. Growers recruited an ...
Mississippi

Mississippi  

The word “Mississippi” often brings particular images to mind—cotton, catfish, magnolias—or causes one to reflect on important historical moments like those of slavery, segregation, and the civil ...
New Deal

New Deal  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The package of policies adopted in the US in the 1930s under President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945) to promote economic recovery from the Great Depression. This included price stabilization ...
peasant

peasant  

[Ge]People who produce food from the land, using traditional farming methods, and who comprise an agricultural class dependent on subsistence farming.
Peonage

Peonage  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Peonage is a form of involuntary servitude based on indebtedness. By 1915 at least six southern states passed laws allowing the forced labor of those encumbered with debt, despite the ...
poverty

poverty  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Poverty is no disgrace, but it is a great incovenience proverbial saying, late 16th century.poverty is not a crime proverbial saying, late 16th century.when poverty comes in at the door, love flies ...
Reconstruction

Reconstruction  

The period 1865–77 following the American Civil War, during which the Southern states of the Confederacy were controlled by federal government and social legislation, including the granting of new ...

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