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alphabet

alphabet  

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Overview Page
1. A particular sequential arrangement of a set of letters or other graphic symbols used to write a language in which these graphemes are used to represent the basic speech sounds or phonemes.2. A ...
art and architecture: Arabic

art and architecture: Arabic  

With the spread of Islam from the Arabian Peninsula westward across North Africa and into Spain in the century following the death of the prophet Muhammad in 630, new forms ...
art and architecture: Islamic

art and architecture: Islamic  

The term Islamic as it is often applied to art and architecture describes the art and architecture created for the service of Islam as well as secular art and architecture ...
Babylon

Babylon  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
An ancient city in Mesopotamia, the capital of Babylonia in the 2nd millennium bc under Hammurabi. The city (of which only ruins now remain) lay on the Euphrates and was noted by Classical writers ...
books

books  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Books of the Hebrew Bible were scrolls, wrapped round rollers (Jer. 36: 2) and unrolled for the appropriate place (Luke 4: 17). Two hands were therefore required for reading them. The Christians' ...
Chinese ideograms

Chinese ideograms  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The word idéogramme was used first by the French linguist Jean‐François Champollion in 1822 to refer to Egyptian symbols: the French word idéographique was used to refer to Egyptian hieroglyphic ...
communication technologies

communication technologies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. Equipment (and associated techniques) directly used to enable interpersonal communication (both synchronous and asynchronous); and/or the mass media. This is not quite synonymous with ‘the means ...
cuneiform

cuneiform  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
Denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets. The name comes ultimately (via ...
decipherment

decipherment  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The deciphering of obscure or obliterated parts of MSS or documents is rarely a simple process, and sometimes relies upon subjective conjecture (aided, however, by familiarity with handwriting, ...
digital Media

digital Media  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
An umbrella term often treated as synonymous with new media or computer-mediated communication. A distinction can be made between media which are based on encoded physical qualities such as light or ...
discourse

discourse  

A continuous stream of spoken (and sometimes written) language longer than a sentence. [From Latin discursus argument, from discurrere to run to and fro, from dis- apart + currere to run]
dyslexia

dyslexia  

Impairment in ability to read, not resulting from low intelligence. It was first described in 1877 by the German physician Adolf Kussmaul (1822–1902), who coined the term word blindness to refer to ...
Ebla

Ebla  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Archaeological site in Syria excavated in 1974–5. Many thousands of cuneiform texts were discovered written in a language which resembles Hebrew. They give important information about the Near East ...
Egypt

Egypt  

Pre‐PtolemaicDuring the New Kingdom (Dynasties 18–20, c.1575–1087bc) Egypt expanded into Asia. This great age of Egyptian militarism created in the 18th Dynasty an empire which stretched from the ...
Egyptian

Egyptian  

An independent branch of the Afroasiatic family, Egyptian shows the closest relations to Semitic and Berber. With its more than four millennia of productive history—from 3000 bce to 1300 ce—it ...
epigraphy

epigraphy  

The term “epigraphy”comes from the Greek epigráphein, “to write on”. It designates what is written to be brought to public knowledge in a lasting way. To ensure this publicity, inscriptions ...
flaming

flaming  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
1. The act of posting angry or insulting messages (flames) to an internet newsgroup or other online forum. A flame war is an exchange of such messages.2. Slang, derogatory term applied to a man ...
grammatology

grammatology  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
1. The study of writing, particularly its historical origins and development.2. Derrida's deconstructionist critique of the phonocentrism of Plato, Rousseau, and Saussure.
grapheme

grapheme  

Any individual character in written language; in alphabetic languages, a letter or other alphanumeric character. The smallest unit in written language. Compare phoneme; see also writing systems.
Greek Inscriptions

Greek Inscriptions  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The term “inscription” refers to the engraving—chiefly on stone or metal—of texts intended for public viewing; the term “epigraphy” refers to the study of such inscriptions. Inscriptions on marble or ...

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