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alpha helix

alpha helix  

The most common form of secondary structure in proteins, in which the polypeptide chain is coiled into a helix. The helical structure is held in place by weak hydrogen bonds between the N-H and C=O ...
amino acid

amino acid  

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An organic acid carrying an amino group. Proteins are linear polymers of the l-forms of ~20 common amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
aminoacyl site

aminoacyl site  

One of two binding sites for tRNA molecules on a ribosome; commonly called the A site. See translation.
anticodon

anticodon  

A triplet sequence of nucleotides in transfer-RNA that during protein synthesis binds by base-pairing to a complementary sequence, the codon, in messenger-RNA attached to a ribosome.
carboxy terminus

carboxy terminus  

a less correct alternative term for the C terminus of a polypeptide chain. See also carboxyl terminus.
chloramphenicol

chloramphenicol  

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One of the early broad-spectrum antibiotics, used extensively in the late 1950s until its bone marrow toxicity was recognized. Despite this it remains a treatment of choice for some rickettsial ...
decoding

decoding  

The process of reconverting a coded message to the message from which it was encoded. See code.
elongation

elongation  

(in protein synthesis)The phase in which amino acids are linked together by sequentially formed peptide bonds to form a polypeptide chain (see translation). Elongation factors are proteins that – by ...
elongation factors

elongation factors  

Proteins that complex with ribosomes to promote elongation of polypeptide chains; they dissociate from the ribosome when translation is terminated. Elongation factor G (EF-G), also called ...
endoplasmic reticulum

endoplasmic reticulum  

(ER)A system of membranes within the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells. It forms a link between the plasma and nuclear membranes (see cisterna) and is the site of protein synthesis. It is also ...
gene expression

gene expression  

The transcription of a gene into an RNA sequence or a protein, or more generally its effects on a phenotype. Also called expression.
genetic code

genetic code  

The set of correspondences between base (nucleotide pair) triplets in DNA and amino acids in protein. These base triplets carry the genetic information for protein synthesis (see ribosome). For ...
idling reaction

idling reaction  

Production of ppGpp and pppGpp by ribosomes when an uncharged tRNA is present in the A site. See translation.
initiation factor

initiation factor  

(IF)Any of a group of proteins that are required for initiating the translation stage of protein synthesis. Each ribosome is assembled on the messenger RNA (mRNA) chain in two subunits, one smaller ...
insertion

insertion  

The addition of one or more base pairs into a DNA molecule; a type of mutation commonly induced by acridine dyes or by mobile insertion sequences (q.v.). See indels.
messenger RNA

messenger RNA  

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A type of RNA that carries the information of the genetic code of the DNA from the cell nucleus to the ribosomes, where the code is translated into protein. see transcription, translation.
methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase

methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase  

EC 2.1.2.9; systematic name: 10‐formyltetrahydrofolate:l‐methionyl‐tRNA N‐formyltransferase. An enzyme that catalyses a reaction between 10‐formyltetrahydrofolate, l‐methionyl‐tRNA, and H2O to form ...
nascent polypeptide chain

nascent polypeptide chain  

The forming polypeptide chain that is attached to the 50 S subunit of a ribosome through a molecule of tRNA. The free end of the nascent polypeptide contains the N-terminal amino acid. See ...
nonsense codon

nonsense codon  

Another name for a stop codon. [So called because it does not specify any amino acid but is none the less a codon]
nonsense mutation

nonsense mutation  

A type of point mutation that converts a codon normally specifying an amino acid to one of the stop codons, thus signalling termination of translation and causing synthesis of the polypeptide chain ...

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