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Richard I

(1157—1199) king of England, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou

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Acre

Acre  

Ancient port on the eastern Mediterranean shore. It was lost by Byzantium to Chosroes II in 614, briefly regained, and lost to the Arabs in 638. Conquered in 1104 during ...
Aquitaine

Aquitaine  

A region and former province of SW France, on the Bay of Biscay, centred on Bordeaux. A province of the Roman Empire and a medieval duchy, it became an English possession by the marriage of Eleanor ...
archers

archers  

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A soldier armed with bow and arrows. Archers have practised their deadly skill since prehistory in most parts of the world, for example, the Romans employed Scythian archers on horseback. In the ...
Army, British

Army, British  

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The British army is still composed of fiercely individualistic regiments and corps. This is a reflection of the tenacity with which it has clung to its roots in the 17th ...
battle of Arsuf

battle of Arsuf  

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1191.On 22 August 1191 Richard I led the armies of the Third Crusade out of Acre towards Jaffa, whence they would strike inland to Jerusalem. The army marched close to the sea‐shore, its right flank ...
Battle of Frétéval

Battle of Frétéval  

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The battle of Frétéval ( 4 July 1194) was the second dramatic defeat suffered by Philip II of France against Richard the Lionheart of England, newly returned from captivity and ...
charter

charter  

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(Latin, carta, “written document”) A legal document from a ruler or government, conferring rights or laying down a constitution. Charters in England date from the 7th century, when they were used to ...
Château-Gaillard

Château-Gaillard  

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Château Gaillard was built in 1197–1198 at Eure in Normandy by the English king Richard I the Lionhearted, who, at war with Philip II Augustus, king of France at the ...
Cornwall

Cornwall  

The oldest of English duchies (from 1337, though first a Norman earldom c.1140) has dimensions other than its peninsularity: the south‐flowing Tamar forms the county boundary with Devon. As the ...
crusades

crusades  

Western Christendom organized several Crusades between 1095 and 1269 to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims. During the 13th century Muslim armies recaptured all their lost territories.
curia regis rolls

curia regis rolls  

English government documents (1196–1272) including records of the Court of Common Pleas, pleas before the king coram rege, and rolls of itinerant justices for the reigns of Richard I and ...
Cyprus

Cyprus  

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History
A bitterly divided island that has rejected an opportunity for reunificationThe island of Cyprus has two main mountain ranges. The Kyrenian Mountains extend along the northern coast, while the ...
Duchy of Cornwall

Duchy of Cornwall  

An estate vested in the Prince of Wales, consisting of properties in Cornwall and elsewhere in SW England.
Dudo of St-Quentin

Dudo of St-Quentin  

(d. before 1043) Dean of St-Quentin and chronicler of the early Norman dukes.Dudo first visited Normandy in 987 as an envoy of the count of Vermandois and later became ...
earl of Cornwall Richard

earl of Cornwall Richard  

B. 5 Jan. 1209, 2nd s. of John and Isabella; cr. earl of Cornwall 1227; elected king of the Romans 1257; m. (1) Isabella, da. of William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, and wid. of Gilbert de Clare, earl ...
Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor of Aquitaine  

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(c. 1122–1204)Daughter of the Duke of Aquitaine, queen of France (1137–52) and of England (1154–89). She was married to Louis VII of France from 1137; in 1152, with the annulment of their marriage, ...
English loss of Normandy

English loss of Normandy  

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(1204).King John's loss of Normandy was probably inevitable in view of the scale of the resources that King Philip II of France could put into its capture. John lacked ...
forest charter

forest charter  

Document issued in November 1217 in Henry III’s name to redress popular grievances against arbitrary royal actions. Forests created by Henry II, Richard I, and John, except on their own ...
Gaufred

Gaufred  

A rhetorician who taught in England at ‘Hampton’ (probably Northampton) at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th c. He wrote a number of poems and ...
Gerald of Wales

Gerald of Wales  

(1146–1223).Gerald was born at Manorbier in Pembrokeshire with a Norman father and a Welsh mother—consequently, he reflected, he was not accepted by either side. After education at Gloucester and ...

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