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Ptolemy

(fl. 146—170) Greek astronomer and geographer

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Abramios, John

Abramios, John  

Astrologer and astronomer; fl. Constantinople and Mytilene, 1370–90.Abramios (᾽Αβράμιος) practiced magic and cast Horoscopes on behalf of Andronikos IV and his son John VII, in their quarrels with ...
acoustic

acoustic  

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Music
(ă-koo-stik)of or relating to sound or the sense of hearing. a. nerve see cochlear nerve. a. neuroma see (vestibular) schwannoma.
Agathocles

Agathocles  

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Tyrant, later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 bc in Thermae, Sicily. His father Carcinus, an exile from Rhegium, received Syracusan citizenship under Timoleon 343/2 and owned a large pottery ...
Albania, Caucasian

Albania, Caucasian  

Caucasian Albania, between the Greco-Roman world and the Iranian world, has nothing to do with Albania in the Balkans: it sits under the south-east slopes of the Great Caucasus. Its ...
Alhazen

Alhazen  

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(c.965–1038) Arabian scientistBorn in Basra (now in Iraq), Alhazen was one of the most original scientists of his time. About a hundred works are attributed to him; the main one was translated into ...
Almagest

Almagest  

An Arabic version of Ptolemy's astronomical treatise; in the Middle Ages (also with lower-case initial) any celebrated treatise on astrology and alchemy. The word comes from Old French, based on ...
Ancient Navigation

Ancient Navigation  

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History
Navigation in the ancient Mediterranean was accomplished largely without instruments. An abundant archaeological and literary record, especially after 800 b.c.e., reveals no trace of nautical charts, ...
Ancient Voyages of Exploration

Ancient Voyages of Exploration  

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History
The archaeological remains of the Minoan civilization on Crete date back to 3000 b.c.e., indicating that its founders had made their way across the waters between the mainland and the ...
Antigonus I

Antigonus I  

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(c.382–301 bc),‘the One‐eyed’, Macedonian noble, was prominent under Philip II and governed Greater Phrygia for Alexander 2 the Great (334–323). Victorious over Persian refugees from Issus (332), he ...
Antiochus III

Antiochus III  

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(‘the Great’) (c. 242–187 bc), second son of Seleucus (2) II, succeeded to the Seleucid throne as a young man, after the assassination of his elder brother, Seleucus (3) III. ...
Apollinarius

Apollinarius  

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(RE ‘Apollinaris’ 12),astronomer (fl. ?1st cent. ad). From references in Galen, Vettius Valens, and others, he appears to have been one of the most important figures in Greek astronomy ...
Apollonius of Perga

Apollonius of Perga  

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(c.262 bc–c.190 bc) Greek mathematicianApollonius moved from his birthplace Perga (now in Turkey) to study in the Egyptian city of Alexandria, possibly under pupils of Euclid. Later he taught in ...
Aquae Sulis

Aquae Sulis  

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[L, waters of Sulis].Roman name for the shrine at Bath in west Britain, where the cult of Sulis, equated with Minerva, was merged with that of several native goddesses.
Arabia

Arabia  

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History
A peninsula of SW Asia, largely desert, lying between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf and bounded on the north by Jordan and Iraq, which is the original homeland of the Arabs and the historic centre ...
Arabo-Islamic Geography

Arabo-Islamic Geography  

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History
Both the Greek term “geography” and the literary and scientific discipline to which it refers were known to medieval Muslims. As early as the late seventh century, when Muslim armies ...
Aristarchus

Aristarchus  

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Of Samothrace (c.216–144 bc), sat at the feet of Aristophanes of Byzantium at Alexandria. He became head of the Alexandrian Library c.153. On the accession of Ptolemy VIII (145) he left Alexandria ...
Aristoxenus

Aristoxenus  

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Of Tarentum (b. c.370 bc), best known for musical writings but also a philosopher, biographer, and historian. He was trained in music, possibly to professional standards. Later he studied with the ...
Arsinoë II Philadelphus

Arsinoë II Philadelphus  

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(c.316–270bc), daughter of Ptolemy I and his mistress Berenice, was married first (300/299) to Lysimachus whom she aided in his bid for the Macedonian throne. Following Lysimachus' death at ...
astrolabe

astrolabe  

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History
An instrument used to make astronomical measurements, typically of the altitudes of celestial bodies, and in navigation for calculating latitude, before the development of the sextant. In its basic ...
astrology

astrology  

The study of movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world. Ancient observers of the heavens developed elaborate ...

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