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Paris Peace Conference

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Alexandar Stambolisky

Alexandar Stambolisky  

(b. 1 Mar. 1879, d. 14 June 1923).Prime Minister of Bulgaria 1919–23 Born in Slavoviza, the son of a wealthy peasant family went to study agriculture in Germany. Upon his return he became head of the ...
Bernard Baruch

Bernard Baruch  

(1870–1965)US industrialist and financier, the respected adviser of presidents from Wilson to Eisenhower. In World War I he served on the Council of National Defense and was the successful Chairman ...
Coupon Election

Coupon Election  

The British general election of December 1918. Its name comes from the ‘coupon’, a letter of commendation from party whips, which was issued to Liberal and Conservative candidates who supported the ...
Curzon Line

Curzon Line  

The border between Soviet Russia and Poland established by the Paris Peace Conference on 8 December 1919, and later named after the British Foreign Secretary Curzon. According to the principle of ...
Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia  

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History
A former state of central Europe comprising the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which separated and became independent republics in 1993. Czechoslovakia was created out of the northern part of the old ...
David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George  

(1863–1945) British statesman and prime minister (1916–22), and one of the three main negotiators at the Treaty of Versailles (1919). Lloyd George played a moderating role between the draconian ...
Edvard Beneš

Edvard Beneš  

(b. 28 May 1884, d. 3 Sept. 1948).President of Czechoslovakia 1935–8, 1945–8. Born in Kozlány (Bohemia), he was educated in Prague and at the Sorbonne (Paris), and became a lecturer in economics at ...
Faisal I

Faisal I  

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History
(1885–1933)King of Iraq (1921–33). The son of Hussein Ibn Ali, he commanded the northern Arab army in Jordan, Palestine, and Syria in association with T. E. Lawrence in the Arab Revolt of 1916–18. In ...
Fourteen Points

Fourteen Points  

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Overview Page
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History
(8 January 1918)A US peace programme for a just settlement at the end of World War I contained in President Woodrow Wilson's address to Congress. They comprised freedom of the seas, equality of trade ...
Friedrich Ebert

Friedrich Ebert  

(b. 4 Feb. 1871, d. 28 Feb. 1925).President of Germany 1919–25 Born in Heidelberg, he became a saddler, and joined the SPD in 1889. From 1893 Ebert edited a party newspaper, and in 1900 he became ...
Gabriele D'Annunzio

Gabriele D'Annunzio  

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Literature
(1863–1938)Italian poet, novelist, and playwright: the leading Italian literary figure of the early twentieth century.D'Annunzio was born at Pescara in Abruzzi and educated in Prato. He published a ...
Georges Clemenceau

Georges Clemenceau  

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(1841–1929)French statesman, Prime Minister (1906–09; 1917–20). A radical politician and journalist, he persistently opposed the government during the early years of World War I, before becoming ...
Ionel Bratianu

Ionel Bratianu  

(b. 20 Aug. 1864, d. 26 Nov. 1927).Prime Minister of Romania 1909–11, 1914–18, 1918–19, 1922–6 Born in Florica as the son of Ion C. Bratianu (b. 1821, d. 1891), a leading National Liberal Romanian ...
isolationism

isolationism  

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History
An approach to US foreign policy that advocates non-participation in alliances or in the affairs of other nations. It derives its spirit from George Washington's proclamation of neutrality in 1793, ...
Jan Christiaan Smuts

Jan Christiaan Smuts  

(1870–1950)South African statesman and soldier, Prime Minister (1919–24; 1939–48). He led Boer forces during the Second Boer War, but afterwards supported Louis Botha's policy of Anglo-Boer ...
John Foster Dulles

John Foster Dulles  

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History
(1888–1959)US Republican statesman and international lawyer. He was adviser to the US delegation at the conference which set up the United Nations in 1945 and negotiated the Peace Treaty with Japan ...
John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes  

(1883–1946)English economist and philosopher. Although primarily known as an economist, Keynes produced one philosophical classic, the Treatise on Probability (1921). This develops the theory of ...
Le Duc Tho

Le Duc Tho  

(b. 14 Oct. 1911, d. 13 Oct. 1990).Vietnamese politician Born Phan Dinh Khai into a learned gentry family in the Nam Ha Province, he joined the Indochina Communist Party upon its foundation in 1930. ...
League of Nations

League of Nations  

An organization for international cooperation established in 1919 by the Versailles Peace Settlement. A League covenant embodying the principles of collective security, arbitration of international ...
Louis Botha

Louis Botha  

(b. 27 Sept. 1862, d. 27 Aug. 1919).First Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa 1910–19Early careerA prosperous farmer from Vryheid (Transvaal), he was the youngest member of the Eerste ...

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