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Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
Abu Khaldun Sati al- Husri

Abu Khaldun Sati al- Husri  

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Religion
(d. 1968)Ottoman ideologist, educational reformer, secular Arab nationalist, and pan-Arabist. Saw secular educational reform as a means of instilling patriotism in youth. Developed a theory of Arab ...
Abū Muṣʿab al- Zarqāwī

Abū Muṣʿab al- Zarqāwī  

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Religion
Abū Muṣʿab al-Zarqāwī (1966–2006)was born Aḥmad Fadeel Nazzal al-Khalaylah in the Jordanian city of Zarqa. From humble origins, Zarqāwī would rise to become one of the world's most infamous jihadists ...
al- Ḥallāj

al- Ḥallāj  

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(d. 922)Persian Sufi preacher and missionary. Ideal of piety and spiritual valor in Sufi tradition and broader Islamic cultural context. Claimed to have experienced an ecstatic sense of spiritual ...
Aleppo

Aleppo  

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An ancient city in northern Syria, which was formerly an important commercial centre on the trade route between the Mediterranean and the countries of the East.
Ali

Ali  

(c.599–661)Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; fourth caliph (656–61); first Shiite imam; an early Quran scribe. Hasan and Husayn, his sons with Muhammad’s daughter Fatima, are the second and third ...
Anthony Blair

Anthony Blair  

(b. 1953).Prime minister. Educated at Fettes College, Edinburgh, and St John's College, Oxford, Tony Blair followed his elder brother William to Lincoln's Inn and qualified as a lawyer. He entered ...
Arabic christian literature

Arabic christian literature  

Each province of the Byzantine Empire conquered by the Muslims at the end of the 7th c. kept (as today) a more or less numerous Christian community, with its own ...
Arabic manuscripts

Arabic manuscripts  

Arabic manuscripts copied between the 8th and the 15th c. (the earliest codex is datable to 843, but several fragments date back in all probability a century earlier) may number ...
Assyrians

Assyrians  

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Renowned as possessing the most ruthless and efficient military organization of all the ancient Mesopotamian empires, the Assyrians dominated the region for over 600 years before being conquered by ...
Ayatollah al- Sistānī

Ayatollah al- Sistānī  

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Religion
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid ʿAlī Ḥusaynī al-Sistānī (b. 1930)is the most revered Shīʿī religious authority in Iraq in the 2000s and one of the major religious authorities among Shīʿī Muslims throughout ...
Baghdad

Baghdad  

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The capital of modern-day Iraq, on the River Tigris, which was a thriving city under the Abbasid caliphs, notably Harun of Chancery, in the 8th and 9th centuries.
Bar Hebraeus

Bar Hebraeus  

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Religion
(1226–86), the usual name of Abû-l-Faraǧ, a Syrian Orthodox bishop and polymath. After studying medicine at Tripoli and Antioch, he was consecrated bishop in 1246, and in 1264 became Primate of the ...
Baʿth Parties

Baʿth Parties  

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Religion
The Arab Socialist Baʿth Party was founded in Syria in the early 1940s by a group led by two Damascene teachers, Michel ʿAflaq (Greek Orthodox by origin) and Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn ...
Belfast

Belfast  

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Subject:
Literature
Is the second largest city in Ireland, and the economic and political capital of Northern Ireland. Although the Normans established a fort at Belfast in the 12th cent., a substantial town only ...
confraternities

confraternities  

A brotherhood, especially with a religious or charitable purpose.
Damascus

Damascus  

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Religion
Capital of the Arab Republic of Syria. Cosmopolitan metropolis of very ancient origins; has been a major center of Islamic culture ever since its conquest by the Muslims in the seventh century. Was ...
Diaspora and Exile

Diaspora and Exile  

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Religion
The terms diaspora and exile are sometimes used interchangeably to refer to people forced to leave traditional homelands or otherwise violently dispersed. Diaspora was used by Greeks to refer to ...
economic sanctions

economic sanctions  

Action taken by one country or group of countries to harm the economic interest of another country or group of countries, usually to bring about pressure for social or political change. Sanctions ...
Electoral Supervision

Electoral Supervision  

Most would agree that democracy is the “fundamental standard of political legitimacy in the current era” (Held, p. xi). Elections are the hallmark—the essential procedural minimum—of democracy. They ...

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