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acarbose

acarbose  

(ass-ar-bohz)an oral hypoglycaemic drug that reduces the breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates in the intestine by blocking the action of an important enzyme (α-glucosidase) in this process. ...
adipocyte

adipocyte  

A mesenchymal cell with large lipid-filled vesicles typical of fatty tissue. Those in brown fat may be distinct. 3T3-L1 cells are often used as a model system because they will differentiate into ...
amylin

amylin  

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A polypeptide (islet amyloid polypeptide, IAPP, 37 aa) of the calcitonin family, derived from an 89-aa precursor by proteolytic processing. It is produced by pancreatic beta cells and cosecreted with ...
analogue

analogue  

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n. a drug that differs in minor ways in molecular structure from its parent compound. Examples are calcipotriol (an analogue of vitamin D), betahistine (an analogue of histamine), and the gonadorelin ...
antidiabetic drugs

antidiabetic drugs  

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Drugs used to control diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is treated with the wide range of formulations of insulin. Type 2 diabetes is treated mainly with oral hypoglycaemic drugs but in some cases ...
B cell

B cell  

A type of lymphocyte (leucocyte) manufactured in the bone marrow (hence the name) which secretes antibodies and is involved in the humoral response. Compare T cell.
biguanide

biguanide  

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n. one of the group of drugs including metformin, which is used to treat noninsulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus. Biguanides are oral hypoglycaemic drugs: they act by reducing the release of ...
biomarker

biomarker  

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An organic compound derived from living organisms that occurs in trace amounts in fossils and sediments.
biotechnology

biotechnology  

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Technology based on the properties and actions of living organisms. Examples include the use of microorganisms in fermentation of milk to produce cheese and sugar solutions of many varieties to ...
blood sugar

blood sugar  

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The concentration of glucose in the blood, normally expressed in millimoles per litre. The normal range is 3.5–5.5 mmol/l. Blood-sugar estimation is an important investigation in a variety of ...
carboxypeptidase

carboxypeptidase  

Any enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of amino acid residues from the carboxyl terminus of a peptide or polypeptide (see exopeptidase). Pancreatic juice contains a carboxypeptidase that is ...
A chain

A chain  

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The smaller of the polypeptides in a heteromeric protein. Often used for the 21 aa polypeptide chain of insulin (the B chain has 30 aa). But see e.g. abrin; AB toxins; activin; laminins; ...
Charles Herbert Best

Charles Herbert Best  

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(1899–1978) American–Canadian physiologistBest, who was born in West Pembroke, Maine, graduated in physiology and biochemistry from the University of Toronto in 1921. In the summer of that year he ...
chlorpropamide

chlorpropamide  

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n. an oral hypoglycaemic drug (see sulphonylurea) used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and diabetes insipidus. Because it is very long acting, chlorpropamide has more side effects than other ...
chromium

chromium  

Symbol Cr. A hard silvery transition element; a.n. 24; r.a.m. 52.00; r.d. 7.19; m.p. 1857°C; b.p. 2672°C. The main ore is chromite (FeCr2O4). The metal has a body-centred-cubic structure. It is ...
chromium picolinate

chromium picolinate  

A substance claimed by some to act as an anabolic agent. It has been suggested that chromium picolinate supplementation increases lean body mass because of the ability of chromium to boost protein ...
cortisol

cortisol  

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n. a steroid hormone: the major glucocorticoid synthesized and released by the human adrenal cortex (see corticosteroid). It is important for normal carbohydrate metabolism and for the normal ...
cysteine

cysteine  

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n. a sulphur-containing amino acid that is an important constituent of many enzymes. The disulphide (S–S) links between adjacent cysteine molecules in polypeptide chains contribute to the ...
cystine

cystine  

A molecule resulting from the oxidation reaction between the sulphydryl (–SH) groups of two cysteine molecules (see amino acid). This often occurs between adjacent cysteine residues in polypeptides. ...
development and growth: birth and infancy

development and growth: birth and infancy  

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The Latin word infans means ‘not speaking’ and by convention the word infancy has come to mean the first year of childhood. There are very great differences between mammalian species ...

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