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abjuration

abjuration  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The act of renouncing an idea, person, or thing to which one has previously adhered. In the past, RC canon law defined it as the external retractation, made before witnesses, of errors contrary to ...
Albigenses

Albigenses  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A medieval term for the inhabitants of parts of S. France applied to the heretics who were strong there in the late 12th and early 13th cents. They were a branch of the Cathars. They were condemned ...
Alexander VII

Alexander VII  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1599–1667), Pope from 1655. As a theologian he held strongly anti-Jansenist views, and to make Jansenist subterfuge impossible, in 1656 he condemned the five propositions from the Augustinus in the ...
Alfonso De Valdés

Alfonso De Valdés  

(c.1490–1532),Spanish satirist, born in Cuenca, the elder of the twin sons of the regidor of Cuenca. Alfonso entered the service of Charles V, and was in his entourage at ...
Alumbrados

Alumbrados  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Loosely knit groups of spiritual persons who lived a retired life of prayer and contemplation in 16th-cent. Spain. It is unclear whether several of them were unorthodox, but some Alumbrados were ...
Alumbrismo

Alumbrismo  

A sixteenth-century Spanish religious movement centred in Toledo and other cities in New Castile. Adherents, who were called alumbrados or illuminati (‘the enlightened’), withdrew from the secular ...
Angelo Clareno

Angelo Clareno  

(1247/55–1337)Leading exponent of the Spiritual Franciscans. Angelo vigorously opposed the Conventual wing of the order and was, consequently, persecuted for his strict observance of St Francis’ ...
António Vieira

António Vieira  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(1608–97), Portuguese theologian. Brought up in Brazil, he joined the Jesuits there in 1623. Returning to Lisbon in 1641, he soon won influence at court. In 1652 he was sent to refound the missions ...
apostasy

apostasy  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The abandonment of Christianity. Until 1983 the term was used in the RC Church also of public defection from the RC Church and of desertion by a professed religious who had taken perpetual vows.
auto de fe

auto de fe  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(Sp., ‘the delivery of sentence in matters of faith’). The ceremony of the Spanish Inquisition at which, after a Procession, Mass, and Sermon, sentences were read and executed. Those sentenced to ...
auto-da-fé

auto-da-fé  

The burning of a heretic by the Spanish Inquisition; the phrase is recorded in English from the early 18th century, and comes from Portuguese, literally ‘act of faith’.
Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
 (1632–77) Leading Dutch-Jewish philosopher,banned by the Portuguese Jewish community in 1656, probably because of his criticisms of the Scriptures (but possibly because of a financial dispute with ...
Beneficio Di Cristo

Beneficio Di Cristo  

Is the most famous work associated with sixteenth-century reform thought in Italy. Despite extensive scholarly literature devoted to it, no agreement about the nature of its theology has been ...
Bernard Délicieux

Bernard Délicieux  

(died 1319)Born at Montpellier to an eminent family, Bernard Délicieux entered the Order of St Francis around 1284. Reader at Carcassonne, then at Narbonne, he personified the broad intellectual ...
Bernard Gui

Bernard Gui  

(c.1261–1331), Dominican historian. He was appointed inquisitor of Toulouse in 1307 and Bp. of Lodève in 1324. He is remembered chiefly for his contribution to the history of the Dominican Order.
Bernardino Ochino

Bernardino Ochino  

(1487–1564),Italian Protestant reformer, born in Siena, where he entered the austere Order of Observantine Friars, a reformed Franciscan religious order. He became general of his Order, but in 1534 ...
Black Legend

Black Legend  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The belief that the cruelty of Spaniards towards the inhabitants of subject nations (especially American Indians) exceeded that of other Europeans. In the second half of the sixteenth century Dutch ...
book burning

book burning  

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Overview Page
The ritual destruction of books deemed false, heretical, blasphemous, indecent, subversive, or simply trivial (distinguished from library destruction by fire). Whether conducted for or against the ...
burning

burning  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Burning alive was a penalty for certain criminal offences in late Roman and early Germanic law and was subsequently adopted in most W. European penal codes. The burning of convicted heretics was a ...
Burning of the Talmud

Burning of the Talmud  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
In the year 1240, the apostate Nicholas Donin laid a charge before the authorities in northern France that the Talmud contained blasphemies against Jesus. The Jews were compelled to surrender ...

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